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OpenStax Chem 17

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

TermDefinition
active electrode electrode that participates in the oxidation-reduction reaction of an electrochemical cell; the mass of an active electrode changes during the oxidation-reduction reaction
alkaline battery primary battery that uses an alkaline (often potassium hydroxide) electrolyte; designed to be an exact replacement for the dry cell, but with more energy storage and less electrolyte leakage than typical dry cell
anode electrode in an electrochemical cell at which oxidation occurs; information about the anode is recorded on the left side of the salt bridge in cell notation
battery galvanic cell or series of cells that produces a current; in theory, any galvanic cell
cathode electrode in an electrochemical cell at which reduction occurs; information about the cathode is recorded on the right side of the salt bridge in cell notation
cathodic protection method of protecting metal by using a sacrificial anode and effectively making the metal that needs protecting the cathode, thus preventing its oxidation
cell notation shorthand way to represent the reactions in an electrochemical cell
cell potential difference in electrical potential that arises when dissimilar metals are connected; the driving force for the flow of charge (current) in oxidation-reduction reactions
circuit path taken by a current as it flows because of an electrical potential difference
concentration cell galvanic cell in which the two half-cells are the same except for the concentration of the solutes; spontaneous when the overall reaction is the dilution of the solute
corrosion degradation of metal through an electrochemical process
current flow of electrical charge; the SI unit of charge is the coulomb (C), The IS unit of current is the ampere (A). One ampere is the flow of one coulomb in one second. Amperes = Charge (C) divided by time (in seconds) [modified see book]
dry cell primary battery, also called a zinc-carbon battery; can be used in any orientation because it uses a paste as the electrolyte; tends to leak electrolyte when stored
electrical potential energy per charge; in electrochemical systems, it depends on the way the charges are distributed within the system; the SI unit of electrical potential is the volt (V=J/C) [modified see book]
electrical work (wele) negative of total charge times the cell potential; equal to wmax for the system, and so equals the free energy change (ΔG)
electrolysis process using electrical energy to cause a nonspontaneous process to occur
electrolytic cell electrochemical cell in which electrolysis is used; electrochemical cell with negative cell potentials
electroplating depositing a thin layer of one metal on top of a conducting surface
Faraday’s constant (F) charge on 1 mol of electrons; F = 96,485 C/mol e−
fuel cell devices that produce an electrical current as long as fuel and oxidizer are continuously added; more efficient than internal combustion engines
galvanic cell electrochemical cell that involves a spontaneous oxidation-reduction reaction; electrochemical cells with positive cell potentials; also called a voltaic cell
galvanized iron method for protecting iron by covering it with zinc, which will oxidize before the iron; zinc-plated iron
half-reaction method method that splits oxidation-reduction reactions into their “oxidation half” and “reduction half” to make finding the overall equation easier. [modified, see book page 977, 939]
inert electrode electrode that allows current to flow, but that does not otherwise participate in the oxidation- reduction reaction in an electrochemical cell; [truncated, see book page 977]
lead acid battery secondary battery that consists of multiple cells; the lead acid battery found in automobiles has six cells and a voltage of 12 V
lithium ion battery very popular secondary battery; uses lithium ions to conduct current and is light, rechargeable, and produces a nearly constant potential as it discharges
Nernst equation equation that relates the logarithm of the reaction quotient (Q) to nonstandard cell potentials; can be used to relate equilibrium constants to standard cell potentials
nickel-cadmium battery (NiCd battery) secondary battery that uses cadmium, which is a toxic heavy metal; heavier than lithium ion batteries, but with similar performance characteristics
overpotential difference between the theoretical potential and actual potential in an electrolytic cell; the “extra” voltage required to make some nonspontaneous electrochemical reaction to occur
oxidation half-reaction the “half” of an oxidation-reduction reaction involving oxidation; the half-reaction in which electrons appear as products; balanced when each atom type, as well as the charge, is balanced
primary battery single-use nonrechargeable battery
reduction half-reaction the “half” of an oxidation-reduction reaction involving reduction; the half-reaction in which electrons appear as reactants; balanced when each atom type, as well as the charge, is balanced
sacrificial anode more active, inexpensive metal used as the anode in cathodic protection; frequently made from magnesium or zinc
secondary battery battery that can be recharged
standard cell potential (Ecell° ) the cell potential when all reactants and products are in their standard states (1 bar or 1 atm or gases; 1 M for solutes), usually at 298.15 K; [truncated see book page 978]
standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) the electrode consists of hydrogen gas bubbling through hydrochloric acid over an inert platinum electrode whose reduction at standard conditions is assigned a value of 0 V; [truncated see book page 978]
standard reduction potential (E°) the value of the reduction under standard conditions (1 bar or 1 atm for gases; 1 M for solutes) usually at 298.15 K; tabulated values used to calculate standard cell potentials
voltaic cell another name for a galvanic cell
Created by: point4christ