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OpenStax Chem 11

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

alloy solid mixture of a metallic element and one or more additional elements
amphiphilic molecules possessing both hydrophobic (nonpolar) and a hydrophilic (polar) parts
boiling point elevation elevation of the boiling point of a liquid by addition of a solute
boiling point elevation constant the proportionality constant in the equation relating boiling point elevation to solute molality; also known as the ebullioscopic constant
colligative property property of a solution that depends only on the concentration of a solute species
colloid (also, colloidal dispersion) mixture in which relatively large solid or liquid particles are dispersed uniformly throughout a gas, liquid, or solid
crenation process whereby biological cells become shriveled due to loss of water by osmosis
dispersed phase substance present as relatively large solid or liquid particles in a colloid
dispersion medium solid, liquid, or gas in which colloidal particles are dispersed
dissociation physical process accompanying the dissolution of an ionic compound in which the compound’s constituent ions are solvated and dispersed throughout the solution
electrolyte substance that produces ions when dissolved in water
emulsifying agent amphiphilic substance used to stabilize the particles of some emulsions
emulsion colloid formed from immiscible liquids
freezing point depression lowering of the freezing point of a liquid by addition of a solute
freezing point depression constant (also, cryoscopic constant) proportionality constant in the equation relating freezing point depression to solute molality
gel colloidal dispersion of a liquid in a solid
hemolysis rupture of red blood cells due to the accumulation of excess water by osmosis
Henry’s law law stating the proportional relationship between the concentration of dissolved gas in a solution and the partial pressure of the gas in contact with the solution
hypertonic of greater osmotic pressure
hypotonic of less osmotic pressure
ideal solution solution that forms with no accompanying energy change
immiscible of negligible mutual solubility; typically refers to liquid substances
ion pair solvated anion/cation pair held together by moderate electrostatic attraction
ion-dipole attraction electrostatic attraction between an ion and a polar molecule
isotonic of equal osmotic pressure
miscible mutually soluble in all proportions; typically refers to liquid substances
molality (m) a concentration unit defined as the ratio of the numbers of moles of solute to the mass of the solvent in kilograms
nonelectrolyte substance that does not produce ions when dissolved in water
osmosis diffusion of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane
osmotic pressure (Π) opposing pressure required to prevent bulk transfer of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane
partially miscible of moderate mutual solubility; typically refers to liquid substances
Raoult’s law the partial pressure exerted by a solution component is equal to the product of the component’s mole fraction in the solution and its equilibrium vapor pressure in the pure state
saturated of concentration equal to solubility; containing the maximum concentration of solute possible for a given temperature and pressure
semipermeable membrane a membrane that selectively permits passage of certain ions or molecules
solubility extent to which a solute may be dissolved in water, or any solvent
solvation exothermic process in which intermolecular attractive forces between the solute and solvent in a solution are established
spontaneous process physical or chemical change that occurs without the addition of energy from an external source
strong electrolyte substance that dissociates or ionizes completely when dissolved in water
supersaturated of concentration that exceeds solubility; a nonequilibrium state
Tyndall effect scattering of visible light by a colloidal dispersion
unsaturated of concentration less than solubility
van’t Hoff factor (i) the ratio of the number of moles of particles in a solution to the number of moles of formula units dissolved in the solution
weak electrolyte substance that ionizes only partially when dissolved in water
Created by: point4christ