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OpenStax Chem 10

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

TermDefinition
adhesive force force of attraction between molecules of different chemical identities
amorphous solid (also, noncrystalline solid) solid in which the particles lack an ordered internal structure
body-centered cubic (BCC) solid crystalline structure that has a cubic unit cell with lattice points at the corners and in the center of the cell
body-centered cubic unit cell simplest repeating unit of a body-centered cubic crystal; it is a cube containing lattice points at each corner and in the center of the cube
boiling point temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the pressure of the gas above it
Bragg equation equation that relates the angles at which X-rays are diffracted by the atoms within a crystal
capillary action flow of liquid within a porous material due to the attraction of the liquid molecules to the surface of the material and to other liquid molecules
Clausius-Clapeyron equation mathematical relationship between the temperature, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of vaporization for a substance
cohesive force force of attraction between identical molecules
condensation change from a gaseous to a liquid state
coordination number number of atoms closest to any given atom in a crystal or to the central metal atom in a complex
covalent network solid solid whose particles are held together by covalent bonds
critical point temperature and pressure above which a gas cannot be condensed into a liquid
crystalline solid solid in which the particles are arranged in a definite repeating pattern
cubic closest packing (CCP) crystalline structure in which planes of closely packed atoms or ions are stacked as a series of three alternating layers of different relative orientations (ABC)
deposition change from a gaseous state directly to a solid state
diffraction redirection of electromagnetic radiation that occurs when it encounters a physical barrier of appropriate dimensions
dipole-dipole attraction intermolecular attraction between two permanent dipoles
dispersion force (also, London dispersion force) attraction between two rapidly fluctuating, temporary dipoles; significant only when particles are very close together
dynamic equilibrium state of a system in which reciprocal processes are occurring at equal rates
face-centered cubic (FCC) solid crystalline structure consisting of a cubic unit cell with lattice points on the corners and in the center of each face
face-centered cubic unit cell simplest repeating unit of a face-centered cubic crystal; it is a cube containing lattice points at each corner and in the center of each face
freezing change from a liquid state to a solid state
freezing point temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium; see also melting point
hexagonal closest packing (HCP) crystalline structure in which close packed layers of atoms or ions are stacked as a series of two alternating layers of different relative orientations (AB)
hole (also, interstice) space between atoms within a crystal
hydrogen bonding occurs when exceptionally strong dipoles attract; bonding that exists when hydrogen is bonded to one of the three most electronegative elements: F, O, or N
induced dipole temporary dipole formed when the electrons of an atom or molecule are distorted by the instantaneous dipole of a neighboring atom or molecule
instantaneous dipole temporary dipole that occurs for a brief moment in time when the electrons of an atom or molecule are distributed asymmetrically
intermolecular force noncovalent attractive force between atoms, molecules, and/or ions
interstitial sites spaces between the regular particle positions in any array of atoms or ions
ionic solid solid composed of positive and negative ions held together by strong electrostatic attractions
isomorphous possessing the same crystalline structure
melting change from a solid state to a liquid state
melting point temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium; see also freezing point
metallic solid solid composed of metal atoms
molecular solid solid composed of neutral molecules held together by intermolecular forces of attraction
normal boiling point temperature at which a liquid’s vapor pressure equals 1 atm (760 torr)
octahedral hole open space in a crystal at the center of six particles located at the corners of an octahedron
phase diagram pressure-temperature graph summarizing conditions under which the phases of a substance can
exist polarizability measure of the ability of a charge to distort a molecule’s charge distribution (electron cloud)
simple cubic structure crystalline structure with a cubic unit cell with lattice points only at the corners
simple cubic unit cell (also, primitive cubic unit cell) unit cell in the simple cubic structure
space lattice all points within a crystal that have identical environments
sublimation change from solid state directly to gaseous state
supercritical fluid substance at a temperature and pressure higher than its critical point; exhibits properties intermediate between those of gaseous and liquid states
surface tension energy required to increase the area, or length, of a liquid surface by a given amount
tetrahedral hole tetrahedral space formed by four atoms or ions in a crystal
triple point temperature and pressure at which the vapor, liquid, and solid phases of a substance are in equilibrium
unit cell smallest portion of a space lattice that is repeated in three dimensions to form the entire lattice
vacancy defect that occurs when a position that should contain an atom or ion is vacant
van der Waals force attractive or repulsive force between molecules, including dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole, and London dispersion forces; does not include forces due to covalent or ionic bonding, or the attraction between ions and molecules
vapor pressure (also, equilibrium vapor pressure) pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with a solid or a liquid at a given temperature
vaporization change from liquid state to gaseous state
viscosity measure of a liquid’s resistance to flow
X-ray crystallography experimental technique for determining distances between atoms in a crystal by measuring the angles at which X-rays are diffracted when passing through the crystal
Created by: point4christ