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Openstax Chem 7

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

axial position location in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry in which there is another atom at a 180° angle and the equatorial positions are at a 90° angle
bond angle angle between any two covalent bonds that share a common atom
bond dipole moment separation of charge in a bond that depends on the difference in electronegativity and the bond distance represented by partial charges or a vector
bond distance (also, bond length) distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms
bond energy (also, bond dissociation energy) energy required to break a covalent bond in a gaseous substance
bond length distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms at which the lowest potential energy is achieved
Born-Haber cycle thermochemical cycle relating the various energetic steps involved in the formation of an ionic solid from the relevant elements
covalent bond bond formed when electrons are shared between atoms
dipole moment property of a molecule that describes the separation of charge determined by the sum of the individual bond moments based on the molecular structure
double bond covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
electron-pair geometry arrangement around a central atom of all regions of electron density (bonds, lone pairs, or unpaired electrons)
electronegativity tendency of an atom to attract electrons in a bond to itself
equatorial position one of the three positions in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry with 120° angles between them; the axial positions are located at a 90° angle
formal charge charge that would result on an atom by taking the number of valence electrons on the neutral atom and subtracting the nonbonding electrons and the number of bonds (one-half of the bonding electrons)
free radical molecule that contains an odd number of electrons
hypervalent molecule molecule containing at least one main group element that has more than eight electrons in its valence shell
inert pair effect tendency of heavy atoms to form ions in which their valence s electrons are not lost
ionic bond strong electrostatic force of attraction between cations and anions in an ionic compound
lattice energy (ΔHlattice) energy required to separate one mole of an ionic solid into its component gaseous ions
Lewis structure diagram showing lone pairs and bonding pairs of electrons in a molecule or an ion
Lewis symbol symbol for an element or monatomic ion that uses a dot to represent each valence electron in the element or ion linear shape in which two outside groups are placed on opposite sides of a central atom
lone pair two (a pair of) valence electrons that are not used to form a covalent bond
molecular structure arrangement of atoms in a molecule or ion
molecular structure structure that includes only the placement of the atoms in the molecule
octahedral shape in which six outside groups are placed around a central atom such that a three-dimensional shape is generated with four groups forming a square and the other two forming the apex of two pyramids, one above and one below the square plane
octet rule guideline that states main group atoms will form structures in which eight valence electrons interact with each nucleus, counting bonding electrons as interacting with both atoms connected by the bond
polar covalent bond covalent bond between atoms of different electronegativities; a covalent bond with a positive end and a negative end
polar molecule (also, dipole) molecule with an overall dipole moment
pure covalent bond (also, nonpolar covalent bond) covalent bond between atoms of identical electronegativities
resonance situation in which one Lewis structure is insufficient to describe the bonding in a molecule and the average of multiple structures is observed
resonance forms two or more Lewis structures that have the same arrangement of atoms but different arrangements of electrons
resonance hybrid average of the resonance forms shown by the individual Lewis structures
single bond bond in which a single pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
tetrahedral shape in which four outside groups are placed around a central atom such that a three-dimensional shape is generated with four corners and 109.5° angles between each pair and the central atom
Deffinition is too long and cannot be shortened. Please see book.
trigonal planar shape in which three outside groups are placed in a flat triangle around a central atom with 120° angles between each pair and the central atom
triple bond bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms
valence shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR) theory used to predict the bond angles in a molecule based on positioning regions of high electron density as far apart as possible to minimize electrostatic repulsion
vector quantity having magnitude and direction
Created by: point4christ