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OpenStax Chem 6

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

amplitude extent of the displacement caused by a wave (for sinusoidal waves, it is one-half the difference from the peak height to the trough depth, and the intensity is proportional to the square of the amplitude)
angular momentum quantum number (l) quantum number distinguishing the different shapes of orbitals; it is also a measure of the orbital angular momentum
atomic orbital mathematical function that describes the behavior of an electron in an atom (also called the wavefunction), [truncated- see book]
Aufbau principle procedure in which the electron configuration of the elements is determined by “building” them in order of atomic numbers, adding one proton to the nucleus and one electron to the proper subshell at a time
blackbody idealized perfect absorber of all incident electromagnetic radiation; such bodies emit electromagnetic radiation in characteristic continuous spectra called blackbody radiation
Bohr’s model of the hydrogen atom structural model in which an electron moves around the nucleus only in circular orbits, each with a specific allowed radius; [truncated- see book]so when changing from one orbit to another. [truncated- see book]
continuous spectrum electromagnetic radiation given off in an unbroken series of wavelengths (e.g., white light from the sun)
core electron electron in an atom that occupies the orbitals of the inner shells
covalent radius one-half the distance between the nuclei of two identical atoms when they are joined by a covalent bond
d orbital region of space with high electron density that is either four lobed or contains a dumbbell and torus shape; describes orbitals with l = 2. An electron in this orbital is called a d electron
effective nuclear charge charge that leads to the Coulomb force exerted by the nucleus on an electron, calculated as the nuclear charge minus shielding
electromagnetic radiation energy transmitted by waves that have an electric-field component and a magnetic-field component
electromagnetic spectrum range of energies that electromagnetic radiation can comprise, including radio, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays; [truncated- see book]
electron affinity energy required to add an electron to a gaseous atom to form an anion
electron configuration electronic structure of an atom in its ground state given as a listing of the orbitals occupied by the electrons [truncated- see book]
excited state state having an energy greater than the ground-state energy
f orbital multilobed region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 3. An electron in this orbital is called an f electron
frequency (ν) number of wave cycles (peaks or troughs) that pass a specified point in space per unit time
ground state state in which the electrons in an atom, ion, or molecule have the lowest energy possible
Heisenberg uncertainty principle rule stating that it is impossible to exactly determine both certain conjugate dynamical properties such as the momentum and the position of a particle at the same time. [truncated- see book]
hertz (Hz) the unit of frequency, which is the number of cycles per second, s−1
Hund’s rule every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin
intensity property of wave-propagated energy related to the amplitude of the wave, such as brightness of light or loudness of sound
interference pattern pattern typically consisting of alternating bright and dark fringes; it results from constructive and destructive interference of waves
ionization energy energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion. The associated number (e.g., second ionization energy) corresponds to the charge of the ion produced (X2+)
isoelectronic group of ions or atoms that have identical electron configurations
line spectrum electromagnetic radiation emitted at discrete wavelengths by a specific atom (or atoms) in an excited state
magnetic quantum number (ml) quantum number signifying the orientation of an atomic orbital around the nucleus; [truncated- see book]
node any point of a standing wave with zero amplitude
orbital diagram pictorial representation of the electron configuration showing each orbital as a box and each electron as an arrow
p orbital dumbbell-shaped region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 1. An electron in this orbital is called a p electron
Pauli exclusion principle specifies that no two electrons in an atom can have the same value for all four quantum numbers
photon smallest possible packet of electromagnetic radiation, a particle of light
principal quantum number (n) quantum number specifying the shell an electron occupies in an atom
quantization occurring only in specific discrete values, not continuous
quantum mechanics field of study that includes quantization of energy, wave-particle duality, and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to describe matter
quantum number integer number having only specific allowed values and used to characterize the arrangement of electrons in an atom
s orbital spherical region of space with high electron density, describes orbitals with l = 0. An electron in this orbital is called an s electron
shell set of orbitals with the same principal quantum number, n
spin quantum number (ms) number specifying the electron spin direction, either + 1/2 or – 1/2
standing wave (also, stationary wave) localized wave phenomenon characterized by discrete wavelengths determined by the boundary conditions used to generate the waves; standing waves are inherently quantized
subshell set of orbitals in an atom with the same values of n and l
valence electrons electrons in the outermost or valence shell (highest value of n) of a ground-state atom; determine how an element reacts
valence shell outermost shell of electrons in a ground-state atom; [truncated/modified See valence shell in book] See Page 336, 323, valence shell, or highest energy level orbitals of an atom.
wave oscillation that can transport energy from one point to another in space
wave particle duality term used to describe the fact that elementary particles including matter exhibit properties of both particles (including localized position, momentum) and waves (including nonlocalization, wavelength, frequency)
wavefunction (ψ) mathematical description of an atomic orbital that describes the shape of the orbital; [truncated- see book]
wavelength (λ) distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave
Created by: point4christ