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OpenStax Chem 4

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11760/1.9

TermDefinition
acid substance that produces H3O+ when dissolved in water
acid-base reaction reaction involving the transfer of a hydrogen ion between reactant species
actual yield amount of product formed in a reaction
analyte chemical species of interest
balanced equation chemical equation with equal numbers of atoms for each element in the reactant and product
base substance that produces OH− when dissolved in water
buret device used for the precise delivery of variable liquid volumes, such as in a titration analysis
chemical equation symbolic representation of a chemical reaction
coefficient number placed in front of symbols or formulas in a chemical equation to indicate their relative amount
combustion analysis gravimetric technique used to determine the elemental composition of a compound via the collection and weighing of its gaseous combustion products
combustion reaction vigorous redox reaction producing significant amounts of energy in the form of heat and, sometimes, light
complete ionic equation chemical equation in which all dissolved ionic reactants and products, including spectator ions, are explicitly represented by formulas for their dissociated ions
end point measured volume of titrant solution that yields the change in sample solution appearance or other property expected for stoichiometric equivalence (see equivalence point)
equivalence point volume of titrant solution required to react completely with the analyte in a titration analysis; provides a stoichiometric amount of titrant for the sample’s analyte according to the titration reaction
excess reactant reactant present in an amount greater than required by the reaction stoichiometry
gravimetric analysis quantitative chemical analysis method involving the separation of an analyte from a sample by a physical or chemical process and subsequent mass measurements of the analyte, reaction product, and/or sample
half-reaction an equation that shows whether each reactant loses or gains electrons in a reaction.
indicator substance added to the sample in a titration analysis to permit visual detection of the end point
insoluble of relatively low solubility; dissolving only to a slight extent
limiting reactant reactant present in an amount lower than required by the reaction stoichiometry, thus limiting the amount of product generated
molecular equation chemical equation in which all reactants and products are represented as neutral substances
net ionic equation chemical equation in which only those dissolved ionic reactants and products that undergo a chemical or physical change are represented (excludes spectator ions)
neutralization reaction reaction between an acid and a base to produce salt and water
oxidation process in which an element’s oxidation number is increased by loss of electrons
oxidation number (also, oxidation state) the charge each atom of an element would have in a compound if the compound were ionic
oxidation-reduction reaction (also, redox reaction) reaction involving a change in oxidation number for one or more reactant elements
oxidizing agent (also, oxidant) substance that brings about the oxidation of another substance, and in the process becomes reduced
percent yield measure of the efficiency of a reaction, expressed as a percentage of the theoretical yield
precipitate insoluble product that forms from reaction of soluble reactants
precipitation reaction reaction that produces one or more insoluble products; when reactants are ionic compounds, sometimes called double-displacement or metathesis
product substance formed by a chemical or physical change; shown on the right side of the arrow in a chemical equation quantitative analysis
the determination of the amount or concentration of a substance in a sample reactant
substance undergoing a chemical or physical change; shown on the left side of the arrow in a chemical equation reducing agent (also, reductant) substance that brings about the reduction of another substance, and in the process becomes oxidized
reduction process in which an element’s oxidation number is decreased by gain of electrons
salt ionic compound that can be formed by the reaction of an acid with a base that contains a cation and an anion other than hydroxide or oxide
single-displacement reaction (also, replacement) redox reaction involving the oxidation of an elemental substance by an ionic species
solubility the extent to which a substance may be dissolved in water, or any solvent
soluble of relatively high solubility; dissolving to a relatively large extent
spectator ion ion that does not undergo a chemical or physical change during a reaction, but its presence is required
to maintain charge neutrality stoichiometric factor ratio of coefficients in a balanced chemical equation, used in computations relating amounts of reactants and products
stoichiometry relationships between the amounts of reactants and products of a chemical reaction
strong acid acid that reacts completely when dissolved in water to yield hydronium ions
strong base base that reacts completely when dissolved in water to yield hydroxide ions
theoretical yield amount of product that may be produced from a given amount of reactant(s) according to the reaction stoichiometry
titrant solution containing a known concentration of substance that will react with the analyte in a titration analysis
titration analysis quantitative chemical analysis method that involves measuring the volume of a reactant solution required to completely react with the analyte in a sample
weak acid acid that reacts only to a slight extent when dissolved in water to yield hydronium ions
weak base base that reacts only to a slight extent when dissolved in water to yield hydroxide ions
Created by: point4christ