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Acid & bases

Arrhenius's definition of an acid: An acid is a substance that dissociates in water to produce a H+ ion.
Limitations of Arrhenius's definition of an acid: 1 . It's restricted to aqueous solutions . 2. X-ray crystallography shows a H+ ion does not exist independently (it combines with water to form a hydronium ion (H3O+)).
Common acids: Acetic acid - C2H4O2 - Found in vinegar. Ascorbic acid - C6H8O6 - Vitamin C. Benzoic acid- C7H6O2 - Adhesives. Carbonic acid - H2CO3 - Fizzy drinks. Citric acid - C6H8O7 - Citrus fruit.
Dissociation Is when molecules separate into smaller particles.
Dissociation *note A strong acid will completely dissociate in water. A weak acid will slightly dissociate in water.
Dissociation - Monobasic A Monobasic acid is an acid that donates one proton (eg. a H+ ion). *Example: hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that dissociates as follows: HCl -> H+Cl- .
Dissociation - Dibasic A Dibasic acid is an acid that donates two protons (eg. 2H+ ions). *Example: Sulpheric acid is a strong acid that dissociates as follows: H2SO4 -> 2H+SO4*2- .
Dissociation -Tribasic A Tribasic acid is an acid that donates three protons ( eg. 3H+ ions ). *Example: Phosphoric acid is an weak acid that dissociates as follows: H3PO4 <=> 3H+PO4*3- .
Amphoteric (Eg. Water.) It can act as both acid and base depending on its environment.
Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid: An acid is a proton donor.
Bronsted-Lowry's chemical properties of acids: 1. Acid + base = salt + water. 2. Acid + metal = salt + hydrogen. 3. Acid + carbonate = salt + water + CO2.
Arrhenius's definition of a base: A base is a substance that dissociates with water to produce OH- ions.
Limitations of Arrhenius's definition of a base: NH3 (Ammonia) would not be considered a base under this definition.
Examples of bases: Sodium hydroxide - NaOH - clear drains. Magnesium hydroxide - Mg(OH)2 - Gaviscon. Calcium hydroxide - Ca(OH)2 - Limewater.
Conjugate acid-base pair: Is a pair consisting of an acid and a base that differ by one proton.
Bronsted-Lowry definition of a base: A base is a proton acceptor.
Alkali An alkali is a water soluble base.
Neutralisation Is a reaction between an acid and a base to form salt and water.
Examples of neutralisation: -Lime (CaO) - to neutralise soil. -Sodiumhydrogencarbonate = gaviscon
Created by: rachelflood2010



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