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Human Development

Covers human development terms as it relates to the LMSW Exam.

TermDefinition
1-3 Months Within this age range an infant gains the ability to raise his/her chin and turn his/her head as well as play with hands and fingers.
4-6 Months Within this age range an infant learns to roll over, reach and grasp, sit up, and obtains first teeth.
7-9 months Within this age range and infant imitates physical action, recognizes familiar objects, places objects in one hand then the other, smiles at self in mirror, plays hide and find games, gives, points, shows.
10-12 months Within this age range an infant creeps, cruises, stands, cooperates when dressing, puts arms through sleeves and legs through pants. plays pat-a-cake.
15 Months By this age an infant walks alone, builds 2 block tower, throws objects, grasps spoon, names commonplace objects
18 Months By this age a toddler runs uncoordinated with numerous falls and can walk backwards and sideways.
2 years By this age a child can run and jump in a controlled way, and climb stairs with help.
3 Years Typically toilet trained, child dresses and undresses with simple clothing and can scribble
4 Years By this age the child understands simple analogies, points to colors and numbers when asked, can write first name, and engages in group play.
Middle Childhood This stage in life is when gender differences appear.
Girls This characterizes which gender in middle childhood? More physically mature Increase in drug risk More flexible Dissatisfaction Lower Self-esteem Agile & enhanced balance
Boys This characterizes which gender in middle childhood? Strength Gross motor skills Early maturation improves popularity
Maturation This term is used to define the process of development of clear identity and power of choice.
Environmental Factors The worldview on behavior is that behavior is influenced by............
Organismic View Like the dramatic protagonist presenting character as fate, this view sees people as cognizant actors shaping their own destinies.
Maturational View The view that growth and differentiation are bounded by the environment.
Structural View The view that a person creates his/her own development based on how they interact with the environment.
Interactional View The view that people are neither gods nor pawns in deciding their fate, but rather they act and react to the changing contexts of which they are a part.
Process Learning is believed to be a.........
Theory of Mind This theory about learning believes that learning is a continuum from infancy to adulthood.
Noam Chomsky This woman was influential in language development. She disagreed with Skinner about language acquisition, stated there is an infinite # of sentences in a language, and claimed that humans have an inborn native ability to develop language.
Phonology This term relating to language is the study of speech sounds in language.
Phoneme This term relating to language is the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morphology This term relating to language is the study of how words are structured and how they are put together from smaller parts.
Syntax This term relating to language is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a language.
Semantics This term relating to language are rules that govern the selection of words that express an intended meaning.
Pragmatics This term relating to language is the speaker's intent, used to influence or control actions or attitudes of others
Speaker There are two types of language structure: surface structure and deep structure. Surface structure refers to which person in the dialogue?
Listener There are two types of language structure: surface structure and deep structure. Deep structure refers to which person in the dialogue?
Social expressions In language development a child's first words are likely to be...........
Babble In the language development process, a child between 6-8 weeks learns to..........
Coo In the language development process, a child between 10-12 weeks learns to..........
Echolalia In the language development process, a child who is 9 months old forms quasi-sentences without real meaning. This is called......
Holophrastic Speech In language development a child between 1 and 2 years will use a single word to convey whole sentence. This is called..........
Telegraphic Speech In language development a child between 18 and 24 months speaks like a telegram—"me cup"—using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary words.
Grammatically Correct Sentences In language development, a child between 2 1/2 and 5 years old learns to structure full sentences. These sentences are called..........
Metalinguistic Awareness In language development a child between 6 and 7 years old understand the importance of words as a means of communication. This awareness is called......
7 Years In human development it is believed that children begin to voluntarily lie at what age?
4 Years In human development, it is believed that a child can understand the concept of a lie at what age?
Benjamin Whorf This man created the notion of linguistic relativity.
Sapir Whorf Hypothesis This theory claims that language shapes cognition.
Short Term Memory This type of memory holds up to 9 items for 20 seconds.
Working Memory This type of memory performs mental operations.
Episodic Memory This type of memory holds our personal experiences.
Semantic Memory This type of memory holds facts and concepts.
Metacognition "Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task
Metamemory An understanding about the processes that underlie memory, which emerges and improves during middle childhood.
Infantile Amnesia A lack of explicit memory for events that occurred before the age of roughly 3.5 years.
Giftedness Exceptional intellectual ability, creativity, or talent.
Culture Fair Intelligence Test Intelligence test designed to measure fluid intelligence by using questions that will not penalize those whose cultural background and/or language differs from that of the white middle and upper class.
Fluid Intelligence One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
Crystallized Intelligence One's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
General Intelligence Foundational base of intelligence that supports more specialized abilities.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions.
Metacomponents Higher-order processes used to plan and regulate task performance; part of triarchic theory of intelligence by Sternberg
Performance Components Actual processes used to perform the task; part of triarchic theory of intelligence by Sternberg
Knowledge Acquisition Components Separating of relevant and irrelevant information while trying to understand something; part of triarchic theory of intelligence by Sternberg
Automaticity The ability to problem-solve quickly; part of triarchic theory of intelligence by Sternberg.
Tacit Knowledge Subjective knowledge that is based on an individual's experiences is known as what?
IQ Test Created by Alfred Binet this is a test designed to measure intellectual aptitude, or ability to learn in school.
Very Superior An individual with an IQ of 130 and above is considered to be..........
Superior An individual with an IQ between 120 and 129 is considered to be.........
High Average An individual with an IQ between 110 and 119 is considered to be........
Average An individual with an IQ between 90 and 109 is considered to be........
Low Average An individual with an IQ between 80 and 89 is considered to be........
Borderline An individual with an IQ between 70 and 79 is considered to be........
Below Average An individual with an IQ 69 or lower is considered to be........
Linguistic A person who can hear sound and rhythm in words and is sensitive to the sounds in language is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Musical A person with the ability to produce quality music and appreciate musical expression is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Spatial A person with the capability of seeing an accurate perception of the visual-spatial world and can adapt or add to it is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Logical/Mathematical A person with the ability to handle long chains of reasoning related to logic or numbers is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Kinesthetic A person who can handle body movements and objects with skill is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Interpersonal A person who can discern and react to the moods, desires, and motivations of others is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Intrapersonal A person who can act based on knowledge of personal strengths and limitations is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Naturalist A person who has knowledge of plants and animals and understand the balance of nature is considered to have what type of intelligence?
Intrapersonal EQ Collectively, the following 3 aspects make up what? --Recognize your emotions --Manage your emotions --Motivate yourself
Interpersonal EQ Collectively, the following 2 aspects make up what? --Recognize other's emotions --Manage your relationship with others
Secure Attachment In this type of attachment, infants use the mother as a home base from which to explore when all is well, but seek physical comfort and consolation from her if frightened or threatened. this is called........
Anxious Ambivalent Attachment Infants are wary of exploring the environment and resist or avoid the mother when she attempts to offer comfort or consolation. This is called.......
Anxious Avoidant Attachment A bond between an infant and his/her caregiver in which the infant is repeatedly rejected and develops an isolated lifestyle. This is called.......
Disorganized Attachment A type of attachment that is marked by an infant's inconsistent reactions to the caregiver's departure and return. This is called........
Anaclitic Depression A pattern of depressed behavior found among very young children that is caused by separation from one's mother.
Modeling A therapeutic technique in which the client learns appropriate behavior through imitation of someone else.
Reciprocal Determination Bandura's observation that the individual's behavior and the social learning environment continually influence one another.
Learned Helplessness The hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
Hierarchy of Needs This is called what?
Firstborn According to Adler, this child is adult oriented, helpful, self-controlled
Second Born According to Adler, this child is a negotiator, has more friends, is an idealist, and when challenged usually succeeds.
Middle Child According to Adler, this child often feels squeezed out.
Youngest Child According to Adler, this child is the baby and considered pampered.
Only Child According to Adler, this child is pampered, spoiled, and feels special but has poorer peer characteristics.
Sensorimotor Stage In Piaget's theory, this is the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
Preoperational Stage In Piaget's theory, this is the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Concrete Operations Stage In Piaget's theory, this is the stage (from 6 to 12 years of age) in which the child understands that there is a real world with real objects, which exist apart from the child and which can be manipulated
Formal Operations Stage This is Piaget's fourth and final stage of cognitive development (ages 11 or 12 and beyond), which is characterized by the ability to apply logical thinking to abstract problems and hypothetical situations
Object Permanence The realization of infants that objects continue to exist even when they are out of sight.
Preconventional Stage In Kohlberg's theory, a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
Conventional Stage In Kohlberg's theory, a stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
Postconventional Stage In Kohlberg's theory, a stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
Moral Development Theory This is called what?
Symbiotic First stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Impulsive Second stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Opportunistic Third stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Conformist Fourth stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Conscientious Fifth stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Autonomous Sixth stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Integrated Seventh stage of Loevinger's theory of Ego Development.
Authoritarian Parents Parents who make arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from their children, punish misbehavior, and value obedience to authority are called......
Authoritative Parents Parents who set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and encourage open communication and independence are called.......
Indulgent Permissive Parents Parents who are Warm and caring, but provide little control, make few demands, and are non punitive are called......
Uninvolved Parents Parents who exhibit low levels of warmth and control, and they minimize the time and effort they spend with their children are called indulgent ______ _______.
Power Assertion Physical punishment, threats and deprivation as punishment are called........
Identity Diffusion Identity status, described by Marcia, that is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives.
Identity Foreclosure Marcia's stage in which adolescents prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives
Identity Moratorium Marcia's term for the status of individuals who are in the midst of a crisis, but their commitments are either absent or vaguely defined.
Identity Achieved According to Marcia, those adolescents who have undergone a crisis in their search for an identity and who have made a commitment to an identity.
Created by: searcysm