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# LMSW Research

### Covers social work research terms as it relates to the LMSW Exam.

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Problem Formulation | Process researchers use to develop a precise statement that can be operationalized. |

Methodology | This includes selection of measurement techniques to be used, choice of the setting where research is to be conducted and determination of the population to be studied. |

Ratio Scales | Interval scale with an absolute zero point. |

Standard Deviation | A measure of variability that describes an average distance of every score from the mean. |

Dependent Variable | The measurable effect, outcome, or response in which the research is interested. |

Threats to Internal Validity | Maturation of subjects, mortality, instruments used to measure the behavior or trait, or statistical regression may be ___________ __ ___________ _____________. |

Survey Research | The measurement of public opinion through the use of sampling and questioning that may be either descriptive or ex post facto. |

Relative Frequency of an Event | The fraction or proportion of the total number of data items belonging to the class is called....... |

Nominal Scales | Scales that partition data into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories by naming them is called....... |

Ordinal Scales | A ranking approach that identifies and ranks the risks from very high to very unlikely or to some other value is called...... |

Interval Scales | A continuous scale, each point reflects the same difference as per the point above and below, however the range (data points) is arbitrary is called.... |

Mean | Average |

Median | Middle number |

Mode | The value that occurs most frequently in a given data set. |

Bimodal | A data set with two modes. |

Multimodal | A distribution with more than two modes. |

Units | The basic objects on which an experiment is done are called...... |

Variable | A measured characteristic of a unit is called....... |

Treatment | Any specific experimental condition applied to units. |

Validity | The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to is called...... |

External Validity | Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings is called......... |

Internal Validity | The extent to which an experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables. |

Double Bind Technique | When both the subjects and those who evaluate the outcome are ignorant as to which treatment was given, this is called....... |

Parameter | A number that describes the population is called........ |

Statistic | A number that describes the sampling data is called.... |

Randomization | The process by which treatments are assigned by a chance mechanism to the experimental units is called.......... |

Control | In an experiment, the standard that is used for comparison is called........ |

Behavioral Observation | When a clinician looks for specific behaviors and what precedes and follows these behaviors as well as the number of times this behavior occurs this is called..... |

Duration Counts | The measure of time a behavior lasts is called.......... |

Frequency Measurements | The count of how many times the target behavior occurs is called........ |

Interval Measure | This selects a discrete unit of time and observes the time block for the target behavior and is called......... |

Line Graph | This type of graph shows the trend in the variable over time and is called a.......... |

Bar Graph | This type of graph compares the values of several variables and is called a........... |

Scatter Plot | This type of graph is used with bivariate data when both variables are measured on an interval/ratio or ordinal scale and is called a......... |

Variance | This is the standard deviation squared, but is considered to be less reliable than standard deviation. |

T Test | This test compares means of two groups and is considered a parametric test. |

Content Validity | This type of validity focuses on whether what is being asked is exploring the content desired for measure. |

Face Validity | This type of validity explores whether the item appears to reach the content desired. |

Logical Content validity | This type of validity references the method the developer engaged with to ensure the required content was included in the test field. |

Criterion Validity | This type of validity seeks to know whether the measurement instrument correlates significantly with other variables that may be relevant. |

Predictive Validity | This type of validity questions whether or not the instrument has a correlation to a future event. |

Concurrent Validity | This type of validity references the instrument's correlation to an event occurring simultaneous to the time the measure is taken. |

Construct validity | This type of validity examines the scale to determine if the theoretical ideas or traits under consideration have been operationalized in the measure. |

Convergent Validity | This type of validity explores if a construct, such as depression, correlates with a theoretically relevant variable, for example the amount of time a person spends crying, difficulty sleeping, decrease in appetite or negative self-talk. |

Discriminant Validity | This type of validity references how theoretically non-relevant variables and those variables without similarities to the theoretically relevant variables are not associated with scores on the measurement. |

Reliability | The following are examples of how to test for what in a test? Test/Retest Alternate Form Internal Consistency Inter-rater Reliability |

Reliability | The following are factors that affect what? Length of test Range or variability in scores Guessing Interpretation of reliability coefficient |

Kuder Richardson Formula 20 | This is a mathematical formula used to estimate internal consistency reliability. If scores pile up at one end of the scale or the other, the distribution is said to be skewed. |

Z Score | The following are characteristics of what scores? • Mean of this score = 0 • Standard deviation of this score = 1.0 • The range of standard deviation scores is -3 to +3; this score = raw score - mean divided by the |

T Score | The following are characteristics of what scores? • Mean of this score = 50 • Standard deviation of a this score is = 10 |

Correlation Coefficient | This examines the degree to which variations or differences in one variable are related to variations or differences in another. |

Line of Regression | In a scattergram, the straight-line vector that connects those points is called the........ |

Regression | This is the primary statistical tool for prediction. |

Null Hypothesis | Ho is also known as the ________ ______________________. |

Significance Level | The probability of a Type I error. A benchmark against which the P-value compared to determine if the null hypothesis will be rejected. |

Alternative Hypothesis | The hypothesis stating what the researcher is seeking evidence of. A statement of inequality. It can be written looking for the difference or change in one direction from the null hypothesis or both. |

Type I Error | An error that occurs when a researcher concludes that the independent variable had an effect on the dependent variable, when no such relation exists; a "false positive". |

Type II Error | An error that occurs when a researcher concludes that the independent variable had no effect on the dependent variable, when in truth it did; a "false negative". |

Population | The entire group of objects about which information is desired is called......... |

Unit | Any individual member of a population is called........ |

Sample | A part or subset of the population used to gain information about the whole is called........... |

Sampling Frame | The list of units from which the sample is chosen is called............ |

Variable | The characteristic of a unit to be measured for those units in the sample is called........... |

Convenience Sampling | Selection of units in a population that are not necessarily random but easily accessible is called......... |

Biased | When a sampling method produces results that consistently differ from the truth about the population in the same way, the sampling method is said to be............... |

Simple Random Sample | A sample of size n selected from the population in such a way that each possible sample of size n has an equal chance of being selected. |

Sampling Distribution | The probability distribution of a sample statistic when a sample is drawn from a population is called....... |

Imprecise Sampling | When values of the sample statistic are spread or scattered, resulting in a sampling that is not repeatable this is called....... |

Sampling Errors | These occur in the act of taking a sample, causing sample results to be different from the census of a population. |

Non Sampling Errors | These are not related to the act of selecting a sample from the population. These errors may accurately reflect a census. |

Missing Data | This type of error may be due to inability to contact a subject or to the subject's refusal to respond and is called....... |

Response Error | This type of error concerns the subject's response. |

Processing Error | This type of error are mistakes on mechanical tasks such as math, coding or data assembly. |

Collection Error | This type or error occurs when the effect of the method used to collect data can be large. |

Probability Sample | This type or sampling is when a sample is chosen in such a way that every unit in the sampling frame has a known non-zero chance (or probability) of being chosen. |

Strata | A sampling frame divided into groups of units due to a special interest in these groups within the population or because the units in each group resemble one another is called............ |