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Transition Metals

Chapters 15 & 16: CHEM 5 AQA

What is the meaning of 'co-ordination number'? The number of co-ordinate bonds formed by ligands to the central metal ion
Why do transitional metals have the characteristics that they do? They have at least one stable ion or atom which has a partially filled d-orbital of electrons
What are the characteristics of transition metals? Complex Formation; Formation of Coloured Ions; Variable Oxidation State; Catalytic Activity
What do changes in colour of transition metal complexes arise from? Changes in: Oxidation State, Co-ordination Number and Ligand
What is haem? Haem is an iron (II) complex with a multi dentate ligand
What is the formula for the linear complex used in Tollen's reagent? [Ag(NH3)2]+
Write equations for the formation of Cr3+ and Cr2+ from the reduction of Cr2O72- by zinc in acid solution. Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 3Zn --> 2Cr3+ + 7H20 + 3Zn2+ Cr2O72- + 14H+ + 4Zn --> 2Cr2+ + 7H20 + 4Zn2+
What is the ratio for the reaction of Cr2O72- and Fe2+? 1 : 6
What is the ratio for the reaction of MnO4- and Fe2+? 1 : 5
What is the ratio for the reaction of MnO4- and C2O42-? 2 : 5
What is the ratio for the reaction of MnO4- and FeC2O4? 3 : 5
What is the structure of cis-platin? [Pt(NH3)2(Cl)2]
What is a heterogeneous catalyst? A catalyst in a different phase from the reactants. The reaction occurs on the surface of the catalyst
What catalyst is used in the manufacture of methanol from CO and H2? Cr2O3
What catalyst is used in the Haber Process? Fe
What can we infer if the catalysts and reactants are in the same phase? The reaction proceeds through an intermediate species
Write two equations to show how iron catalyses the reaction of I- and S2O82-. S2O82- + Fe2+ --> 2SO42- + 2Fe3+ 2I- + 2Fe3+ --> I2 + 2Fe2+
Write an equation to show the formation of the catalyst in the autocatalysis of the reaction between C2O42- and MnO4-. 2MnO4- + 16H+ + 5C2O42- --> 2Mn2+ + 8H20 + 10CO2
Write two equations to show the autocatalysis of the reaction between C2O42- and MnO4-. 4Mn2+ + MnO4- + 8H+ --> 5Mn3+ + 4H2O 2Mn3+ + C2O42- --> 2CO2 + 2Mn3+
What is cis-platin used as? An anti-cancer drug
What is a Lewis acid? Electron pair acceptor
What is a Lewis base? Electron pair donor
Name two amphoteric metal hydroxides. Aluminium Hydroxide and Chromium Hydroxide
What is a ligand? A molecule or ions that contains at least one lone electron pair it can donate to form a co-ordinate bond
What is a complex? A central metal ion surrounded by ligands
Give examples of unidentate ligands. H2O, NH3, Cl-
Give examples of bidentate ligands. NH2CH2CH2NH2 and C2O42-
Give an example of a multi dentate ligand. EDTA 4-
How does spectrometry work? The absorption of visible light is measured to determine the concentration of coloured ions
Write two equations to show how V2O5 acts as a catalyst in the Contact Process SO2 + V2O5 --> SO3 + V2O4 V2O4 + 0.5O2 --> V2O5
Why is CO toxic? CO can form a stronger co-ordinate bond with haemoglobin than oxygen, which prevents oxygen from attaching to the haemoglobin
Write an equation for the reduction of the silver complex in Tollen's reagent. [Ag(NH3)2]+ + e- --> Ag + 2NH3
Why are M3+ ions more acidic in solution than M2+ ions? 3+ ion shave a greater charge to size ration, and therefore the electrons are pulled in to the central metal ion more closely; oxygen pulls in electron density, distorting the OH bond; hydrogen is more delta-positive and more readily removed by water.
What is the chelate effect? Complexes involving multidentate ligands are more stable than complexes with unidentate ligands.
Why does the most stable ion change from 3+ to 2+ across the period? The increasing effective nuclear charge makes it harder to lose a third electron
Why do some precipitates oxidise on standing? It is easier to remove an electron from a neutral complex than a positive ion
Give an example of an oxidising agent. Hydrogen peroxide
What is the chromate/dichromate equilibrium? 2Cro42- + 2H+ <--> Cr2O72- + H20
If solid copper chloride is dissolved in water, what do you get/ [Cu(H20)6]2+
What can EDTA4- be used for? EDTA can be added to rivers to remove poisonous heavy meal ions as the EDTA complexes are non toxic. It can be used in shampoos to remove calcium ions present in hard water to help lathering.
Created by: GraceAlston