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Chapters 1-3

Chemistry 1

TermDefinition
Chemistry The study of matter
Matter Anything that has mass and volume
3 states of matter Solid, Liquid, Gas
Solid has definite volume and maintains shape
Liquid has definite volume and takes shape of container
Gas has no definite volume or shape
Physical properties can be observed or measured without changing the material boiling point (bp) melting point (mp) solubility color and odor
Physical change alters the material does not change composition
Chemical properties determines how a substance can be changed into another
Chemical change/ chemical reaction converts one substance into another
Pure substance one substance, cannot be broken down by physical change into another pure substance
Mixture more than one substance, can be separated into its components by physical change
Element pure substance cannot be broken down by chemical change
Compound pure substance formed by joining two or more elements chemically
Measurement is always composed by a unit and a number. Each measurement has a base unit.
Exact number results from counting numbers or is part of a definition
Inexact number results from measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty
Significant figures all digits measured including one estimated digit. All non zero digits are significant
Zero is significant when: between 2 non zero digits and at the end of a number with a decimal place
Zero does not count when: at the beginning of a number and at the end of a number that does not have a decimal
Scientific notation a number between 1 and 10, and exponent any positive or negative whole number
Factor-label method uses conversion factors to convert a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit
Conversion factor term that converts a quantity in one unit to a quantity in another unit
Temperature measure of how hot or cold an object is. Three temperature scales are used degrees Fahrenheit, Celsius, and kelvin
Density physical property that relates the mass of a substance to its volume
Specific gravity quantity that compares the density of a substance with the density of water at the same temperature
Three groups division on the periodic table metals, nonmetals, and metalloids
Metals on the left side of the periodic table, exist as shiny solids, are good conductors of heat and electricity, solids at room temperature
Non metals on the right side of periodic table, no shiny appearance, poor conductors of heat and electricity, can be liquid, solids, or gases at room temperature
Metalloids located on the solid line that starts at boron, properties between metals and nonmetals, presented by 7 elements only
Chemical formula element symbols and subscripts to show the ratio of atoms in the compound
Matter is composed of the same basic building blocks called atoms
Atoms are composed of three subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons
Nucleus location of protons and neutrons, dense core of the atom, most of the mass of the atom resides here
Electron cloud location of electrons comprises most of the atom’s volume
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus
Mass number the number of protons and the number of neutrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons
Atomic weight weighted average of the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes, reported in atomic mass units
Period A row in the periodic table
Group column in the periodic table
Created by: Emaldonado14