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# Exams

### Math Semester Exams

Chapter 1 numerical expression | an expression that consists of numbers and operations |

variable | a letter that is used to represent one or more numbers |

variable expression | an expression that consists of numbers, variables, and operations |

evaluate | to find the value of the variable expressions by substituting a number for each variable, and then finding the value |

base | the number or expression that is used as a factor in a repeated multiplication |

exponent | a number or expression that shows how many times a base is used as a factor in a repeated multiplication |

order of operations | a set of rules for evaluating an expression involving more than one operation |

integer | the numbers... -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3,... consisting of the negative integers, zero, and the positive integers |

negative integer | the integers less than zero |

positive integer | the integers that are greater than 0 |

absolute value | a number a is its diameter from 0 on a number line |

origin | the point (0,0) where the x-axis and the y-axis meet in a coordinate plane |

ordered pair | a pair of numbers (x,y) that be used to represent a point in a coordinate plane |

Chapter 2 term | the parts of an expression that are added together |

coefficent | the number of a term with a variable |

constant term | a term that has a number but no variable |

like terms | terms that have identical variable parts |

equation | a mathematical sentence formed by placing an equal sign, =, between two expressions |

inverse operations | two operations that undo each other |

Chapter 3 inequality | a mathematical statement formed by placing an inequality symbol between two expressions |

solution of an inequality | the set of all numbers that produce true statements when substituted for the variable in the inequality |

Chapter 4 prime number | a whole number greater than 1 that has exactly two whole number factors, 1 and itself |

composite number | a whole number greater than that has more than two whole number factors |

monomial | a number, a variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to whole number powers |

common factor | a whole number that is a factor of two or more nonzero whole numbers |

relatively prime | two or more nonzero whole numbers whose greatest common factor is 1 |

equivalent fractions | two fractions that represent the same number |

simplest form (as a fraction) | a fraction is in simplest form when its numerator and denominator are relatively prime |

multiple | the product of a number and any nonzero whole number |

scientific notation | a number is written in scientific notation if it has the form cx10n |

Chapter 5 rational number | a number that can be written as a quotient of two integers |

terminating decimal | a decimal that has a final digit repeating decimal |

repeating decimal | a decimal that has a digit or block of digits that repeats without end |

reciprocals | two nonzero numbers whose product is 1 |

multiplicative inverse | the product of a number and its multiplicative inverse is 1 |

Chapter 6 ratio | a comparison of two numbers using division |

proportion | an equation that states that two ratios are equal |

similar figures | figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size. Corresponding angles of similar figures are congruent, and the ratios of the lengths of corresponding sides are equal |

corresponding parts | a pair of sides or angles that have the same relative position in two figures |

congruent figures | figures that have the same shape and the same size. Corresponding angles and sides of congruent figures are congruent |

scale | a ratio that gives the relationship between the dimensions of a scale drawing or a scale model and the actual dimensions of the object |

favorable outcomes | outcomes that correspond to a specified event |

probability | a number from 0 to 1 that measured the likelihood that an event will occur |

odds in favor | when all outcomes are equally likely, the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of unfavorably outcomes is called the odds in favor of an event |

odds against | when all outcomes are equally likely, the ratio of the number of unfavorable outcomes to the number of favorable outcomes is called odds against an event |

Chapter 7 percent | a ratio whose denominator is 100. The symbol for percent is % |

markup | the increase from the wholesale price of an item to the retail price |

discount | the decrease from the original price of an item to the sale price |

interest | the amount earned or paid for the use of money |

principal | an amount of money that is deposited or borrowed |

balance | the sum of the principal and all interest earned |

Chapter 8 relation | a pairing of numbers in one set with numbers in another set |

domain | the set of all possible inputs for the relation |

range | the difference of the greatest value and the least value in a data set |

input | a number in the domain of a relation |

output | a number in the range at a relation |

function | a relation with the property that for each input there is exactly one output |

linear equation | an equation whose graph is a line |

function form | an equation in x and y is in function form if it is solved for y |

x-intercept | the x-coordinate of a point where a graph crossed the x-axis |

y-intercept | the y-coordinate of a point where a graph crosses the y-axis |

slope | a nonvertical line is the ratio of the rise to the run between any two points on the line |

slope-intercept form | the form of a linear equation y=mx+b where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept |

solution of a linear system | an ordered pair is a solution of each equation in the system |

Chapter 9 square root | a number n is a number m such that m2=n |

perfect square | a number that is the square of an integer |

radical expression | an expression that involves a radical sign |

simplest form of a radical expression | a radical expression is in simplest form when (1) no factor of the expression under the radical sign is a perfect square other than 1, and (2) there are no fractions under the radical sign and no radical sign in the denominator of any fraction |

hypotenuse | the side of a right triangle that is opposite the right angle |

leg | the sides of a right triangle that form the right angle |

Pythagorean Theorem | for any right triangle, the sum of the squares of the lengths a and b of the legs equals the square of the length c of the hypotenuse. |

irrational number | a number that cannot be written as a quotient of two integers. The decimal form of an irrational number neither terminates nor repeats |

real number | the set of all rational number and irrational numbers |

Chapter 10 polygon | a closed plane figure who sides are segments that interest only t their endpoints |

pentagon | a 5-sided polygon |

hexagon | a 6-sided polygon |

heptagon | a 7-sided polygon |

octagon | a 8-sided polygon |

quadrilateral | a 4-sided polygon |

trapezoid | a quadrilateral with exactly 1 pair of parallel sides |

parallelogram | a quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel |

rhombus | a parallelogram with 4 congruent sides |

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