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molecular formula the chemical formula of a molecular substance, showing the identity of the atoms in each molecule and the ratios of those atoms to one another
structural formula a 2-D drawing or diagram that shows how the atoms in a molecule are connected. Each line represents a covalent bond.
isomer compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. Isomers differ in molecular structure and in chemical and physical properties
HONC 1234 rule a rule that states that in most molecules, hydrogen makes1 bond, oxygen makes 2 bonds, nitrogen makes 3 bonds, and carbon makes 4 bonds
Lewis dot structure a diagram that shows a molecule's structure by using dots to represent the valence electrons
Lewis dot symbol a diagram that uses dots to represent the valence electrons of a single atom
bonded pair a pair of electrons that are shared in a covalent bond between two atoms
lone pair a pair of unshared valence electrons that are not involved in bonding in a molecule
octet rule nonmetal atoms combine by sharing electrons so that each atom has a total of eight valence electrons. After bonding, each atom resembles a nobel gas in its electron arrangements
double bond a covalent bond where four electrons are shared between two atoms
triple bond a covalent bond in which three electron pairs are shared between two atoms.
functional group a structural feature of a molecule; consists of a specific arrangement of atoms, responsible for certain properties of the compound
chemical reaction a transformation that alters the composition of one or more substances such that one or more new substances with new properties are produced.
synthesis reaction the creation of one product from multiple reactants
chemical equation a representation of a chemical reaction wirtten with chemical symbols and formulas
reactant the starting material in a chemical reaction that is transformed into products during the reaction
product a substance produced as the result of a chemical reaction
catalyst a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction but is itself not permenantly consumed or altered by the reaction
Created by: lpgullett