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Bonds, Acids, Oxidat

Chemistry 100

Three types of chemical bonds (Lewis): Ionic, covalent, metallic
Lewis structure the element symbol is surrounded by a number of dots equal to the number of valence electrons
Ionic Bond Ionic: valance electrons are transferred (usually formed between a metal and a non-metal).
Covalent Bond Covalent: valence electrons are shared (usually formed between two non-metals)
Coordinate covalent bond both electrons in a bonding pair come from the same atom.
Metallic Bond "Electron Sea" model. Luster/ shine, malleability, ductility, conductance
Properties of Acids Dissolve metals. Taste sour. React with bases to form salt and water. Turn litmus paper red.
Properties of Bases Feel slippery. Taste bitter. React with acids to form water and salt in neutralization reactions. Turn litmus paper blue
Neutralization equations acid + base --------> water + salt, where salt = anion from the acid and cation from the base.
Arrhenius definition Acid-produces hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Base- produces hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.
Brønsted-Lowry definitions acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors. BASES ACCEPT ACIDS DONATE.
Types of acids Strong (dissociate in water) or weak (do not)
Types of bases Strong (dissociate in water) or weak (do not)
Oxidation electron drain or oxygen gain or hydrogen loss
Reduction electron gain or oxygen loss or hydrogen gain.
The reducing agent is oxidized (loses electrons).
The oxidizing agent is reduced (gains electrons).
Hydrocarbons Saturated, Unsaturated, Other
Saturated Alkanes- single bonds
Unsaturated Alkenes- one or more double bonds. Alkynes- one or more triple bonds.
Other Aromatics- 6-membered rings w/alternating single and double bonds.
Created by: ashea01