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Chemistry Term II

Chemistry vocabulary

Mole Ratio The ratio of moles of a substance to the moles of another substance in a balanced equation using the coefficients
Stoichiometry The relationship between the quantities of substances taking part in a reaction
Limiting Reactent The reactant in a chemical equation that is present in the lesser amount, and is completely used up
Excess Reactant The reactant that is left over
Theoretical Yield The amount of product predicted from the amounts of reactants used
Actual Yield The actual amount of product produced from the amounts of reactants used
% Yield The actual yield of product divided by the theoretical yield multiplied by 100
Photons Wave packets of energy
Electromagnetic Radiation When energy is transmitted from one place to another by light
Wavelength Distance between wavecrests
Frequency Number of waves passing by a given point per second
Ground State Lowest energy level for electrons
Excited State Electrons have absorbed energy
Electron Orbitals Region of space around the nucleus of an atom within which there is a 90% probability of finding an electron
Principal Energy Level The energy level denoted by n, each containing a different number of sublevels
Quantized Only certain values are allowed in specific energy levels
Bohr Model of the Atom Electrons orbit the nucleus at set distances
Wavelength Mechanical Model of the Atom Electrons exist in atoms and determine the chemical and physical properties of elements
Electron Configuration A way to display the location of all electrons in an element
Core Electrons Electrons in the inner energy levels
Valence Electrons Electrons in outer sublevel
Noble Gas Configuration Shortcut for electron configuration
Ionization energy The amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Atomic Size Atoms get bigger as you go down a group, and smaller from left to right
Bond The force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit
Bond Energy The energy required to break a chemical bond
Ionic Bonding The attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic Compound A compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
Covalent Bonding A type of bonding in which atoms share electrons equally
Polar Covalent Bond A covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atom attracts the shared electrons more than the other
Electronegativity The tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Dipole Moment A property of a molecule in which the charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charger and a center of negative charge
Lewis Structure A representation of a molecule or polyatomic ion showing how valence electrons are arranged among the atoms in the molecule
Resonance A condition occuring when more than one valid Lewis Structure can be written for a particular molecule
Bent or V-Shape Structure Two bonds and two unshared pairs on central atom
Linear Structure Two double bonds on central atom
Trigonal Planar Structure One double bond and two single bonds on a central atom
Trigonal Pyramid Structure Three single bonds and an unshared pair on a central atom
Tetrahedral Structure Four single bonds on a central atom
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Model Model used to predict molecular geometry
Solution Homogeneous mixture that doesn't settle
Alloy Solid mixed with another solid
Aqueous Solution Liquid solution in which water is the main component
Solvent Component present in the largest amount
Solute Component present in the lesser amount
Soaps and Detergents Molecules with both polar and non-polar parts that can dissolve in both polar and non-polar solvents
Dilute Relatively small amount of solute in mixture
Concentrated Relatively large amount of solute
Unsaturated Less than maximum amount of solute
Saturated Maximum amount of solute is dissolved in solution
Supersaturated More than maximum amount of solute is dissolved in solution
Solubility Maximum number of grams of solute per 100 mL of water and a given temperature
Molarity Concentration of solution (# of moles/volume
Standard Solution A solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Dilution The process of adding solvent to a solution to lower the concentration of solute (m1v1=m2v2)
Stock Solution Beginning concentrated solution
Arrhenius Acid Produces H+ in solution
Arrhenius Base Produces OH+ in solution
Equivalent of an Acid The amount of acid that can furnish one mole of hydrogen ions
Equivalent Weight The mass of one equivalent of an acid or base
Normality Number of equivalents per 1 L of solution
Colligative Property Depends only on the number of solute particles present in the solution
Freezing Point Depression Adding more solute to a solution will lower the freezing point of the solution
Boiling Point Elevation Adding more solute to a solution will increase the boiling point of the solution
Bronsted-Lowery Acid Proton Donor H+
Bronsted-Lowery Base Proton Accepter
Hydronium Ion H3O+ ion formed when an acid is added to water
Conjugate Acid Substance formed when a proton is added to a base
Conjugate Base Remaining substance when a proton is lost from an acid
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair Two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
Oxyacid An acid in which the acidic hydrogen is attached to an oxygen atom
Organic Acid Acid with a carbon atom backbone
Amphoteric A substance that can act as both an acid and a base (water)
pH Scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution
Indicators Chemicals that change color depending on the pH of a solution in which they are placed
Titration A technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Standard Solution A solution in which the concentration is known
Equivalence Point The point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution that is being titrated
Buffered Solution A solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or a base is added
Created by: emmakolden