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Chem 1, Quarter 2

Chemistry 1: Q2

Chemistry science that deals with materials of the universe and their changes
Stoichiometry the process of using balanced chemical equations to determine the relative masses of the reactants and products involved
Mole Ratio the ratio of moles of one substance to moles of another substance in a balanced chemical equation
Limiting Reactant the substance that is completely used up when a reaction is completed
Excess Reactant the substance that is left over when a reaction is completed
Theoretical Yield the maximum amount of a given product that can be formed when the limiting reactant is completely used up
Actual Yield the actual amount of a given product that is formed when the limiting reactant is completely used up
Percent (%) Yield the actual yield / the theoretical yield
Wavelength distance between wave crests
Frequency number of waves passing per second
Velocity all electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed
Electron Orbital region of space around a nucleus of an atom within which there is a 90% probability of finding an atom
Orbital specific region of space inside a sublevel
Core Electrons electrons in the inner energy levels
Valence Electrons electrons in the outermost sublevel
Ionization Energy the amount of energy required to remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Bond force that holds two or more atoms together and makes them function as a unit
Bond Energy the energy required to break a given chemical bond
Ionic Bonding the attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic Compound a compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form cations and anions
Non-Polar Covalent Bonding a type of bonding in which the atoms share electrons
Polar Covalent Bonding a covalent bond in which the electrons are not shared equally because one atoms attracts the shared electrons more
Electronegativity the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attracts shared electrons to itself
Dipole Moment a property of a molecule in which the charge of a distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
Solution homogeneous mixture that doesn't settle
Alloy solid mixed with another solid
Solvent component of a solution present in the largest amount
Solute component of a solution present in the lesser amount
Ionic separates into ions in solution
Polar creates hydrogen bonds with other molecules and ions
Non-Polar no molecular interaction between molecules
Dilute relatively small amount of solute in mixture
Concentrated relatively large amount of solute in mixture
Unsaturated less than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Saturated maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Supersaturated more than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in a solution
Solubility maximum number of grams of solute per 100 g or 100 mL of water at a given temperature
Molarity concentration of solution involving moles
Acid (Arrhenius Model) substance that produces H+ ions in solution
Base (Arrhenius Model) substance that produces OH- ions in solution
Acid (Bronsted-Lowry Model) proton donor
Base (Bronsted-Lowry Model) proton acceptor
Conjugate Acid substance formed when a proton is added to a base
Conjugate Base substance formed when a proton is lost from an acid
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a proton
Amphoteric a substance that can act as both an acid and a base
Indicator a chemical that changes color depending on the pH of the solution in which they are placed
Titration technique in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of another solution
Standard Solution a solution in which the concentration is accurately known
Buret device used to accurately measure the delivery of a given volume of liquid or solution
Equivalence Point the point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution
Buffered Solution a solution that resists a change in pH when either an acid or base is added
Created by: 18hanmal



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