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# Physics 2nd quarter

### Vocabulary for the second half of Physics

TermDefinition
Rotational Motion Movement in a circle or spinning units; degrees, revolutions, radians
Radian Angle formed when an arc length is equal to the radius of a circle.
Angular Displacement delta theta rotational counterpart to delta x.
Angular speed Rate at which an object moves through an angle. Rotational counterpart to linear velocity abbreviation: omega SI Unit: rad/sec
Angular Acceleration Rate of change in angular speed. rotational counterpart to linear acceleration Abbreviation:lower-case alpha SI Unit: rad/sec^2
Centripetal Acceleration Acceleration Toward the center of a circle Abbreviation: a sub c SI Unit: m/sec^2
Centripetal Force Net force acting toward the center of a circle keeping an object moving in a circular direction. Abbreviation: F sub c SI Unit: N
Centrifugal Force Imaginary outward force felt by observers moving in a circular path. Abbreviation: F sub g SI Unit: N
Kepler's 1st Law Each Planet travels in an elliptical orbit around the sun with the sum at one of the focal points.
Kepler's 2nd Law An imaginary line drawn from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas in equal time intervals.
Kepler's 3rd Law The square of a planet's orbital period (T) is proportional to the cube of the average distance (r^3) between the planet and the sun.
Center of Gravity A point from which the weight of a body or system may be considered to act. (In uniform gravity it is the same as the center of mass.)
Torque Quantity that measures the ability of a force to rotate an object about some axis. Rotational counterpart to linear force SI Unit: Nm or Kg(m/s)^2 Max torque at 90 degrees, no torque at 0 or 180 degrees
Rotational Equilibrium When net torque and net force is zero. (Means that something is spinning at a constant speed)
Inertia The tendency of an object to resist a change in momentum.
Moment of Intertia The tendency of an object to resist a change in rotational motion. Abbreviation: I SI Unit: Kg*m^2
Moment of Inertia for a hoop mr^2
Moment of Inertia for a cylinder/solid disk (mr^2)/2
Mass Density Concentration of matter in an object Abbreviation: Latin letter rho SI Unit: Kg/(m^3)
Buoyant Force Upward force exerted by a fluid on an object immersed in or floating on the fluid. Abbreviation: F sub b SI Unit: N
Archimedes' Principle An object completely or partially submerged in a fluid experiences an upward buoyant force equal in magnitude to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.
Pressure Magnitude of the force on a surface per unit area Abbreviation: P Equation: P=F/A SI Unit: N/(m^2) or Pascal (Pa)
Barometer Devise used for measuring air pressure.
Pascal's Principle Pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container is transmitted equally to every point of the fluid and to the walls of the container.
Ideal Liquid A liquid with no internal friction, it is non=viscus. Steady and non-turbulent flow.
Principle of Fluid Flow The mass of the fluid flowing into a pipe must equal the mass of fluid flowing out of the pipe.
Venturi Effect The speed of a fluid increases when the cross sectional area decreases.
Flow Rate The product of A*v for a pipe. Flow rate is constant. Units: (m^3)/sec or CFM
Bernoulli's Principle The pressure in a fluid decreases as the velocity of the fluid increases.
Magnus Force A force created by Bernoulli's principle. "lift."
Temperature Measure of the average kinetic energy of particles in a substance. Abbreviation: T SI Unit: Kelvin (K)
Internal Energy The energy of a substance due to both the random motion of its particles and to the potential energy that results from the distances and alignments between particles.
Thermal Equilibrium The state in which two bodies in physical contact with one another have identical temperatures.
Thermal Expansion Generally, as temperature rises, so does volume.
Coefficient of Volume Expansion Quantity that relates the change in volume of an object to change of temperature.
Heat Energy transferred between objects due to a difference in temperature. Abbreviation: Q SI Unit: J (Joules)
Conduction Heat transferred due to direct contact.
Convection Heat transferred by the mixing of matter. (Happens with magma)
Radiation Heat transferred through electromagnetic waves.
Thermal Insulators Slowly transfer energy as heat (Slow due to pockets of trapped air).
James Prescott Joule Designed a device to show that energy transferred due to work can be turned into internal energy.
Specific Heat Capacity Quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1k or 1 degrees C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume. Abbreviation: C sub p SI Unit: J/Kg(k) or J/kg(C)
Calorimetry: An experimental procedure used to measure the energy transferred from one substance to another as heat.
Phase Change Physical change in a substance from one state of matter to another at constant temperature and pressure.
Latent Heat The energy per unit mass that is transferred during a phase change of a substance. Abbreviation: L SI Unit: J/kg
Latent Heat Fusion L sub f Needed to melt 1 kg
Latent Heat Vaporization L sub v Needed to boil 1 kg
Simple Harmonic Motion Vibration about an equilibrium position in which a restoring force is proportional to the displacement from equilibrium.
Restoring Force The force towards the equilibrium point. Abbreviation: F
Hooke's Law The restoring force of a spring depends on the stiffness of the spring and the displacement from the spring's equilibrium point.
Amplitude The maximum displacement from the equilibrium point. Abbreviation: A SI Unit: m
Period The time it takes a complete cycle to occur. Abbreviation: T SI Unit: s (seconds)
Frequency The number of cycles or vibrations per unit of time. Abbreviation: f SI Unit: Hertz (Hz) or 1/sec
Simple Pendulum For small angles (less than 15 degrees), the motion of a pendulum is SHM. This is because for small angles Sin(x) is about x in radians. Gravity is the restoring force.
Wave Undulation or disturbance that transfers energy. (Energy, not matter, is transferred).
Medium Physical environment through which a disturbance can travel.
Mechanical Wave A wave that requires a medium through which to travel. (ie, water waves, rope waves, etc.)
Pulse Wave A wave consisting of a single traveling pulse.
Periodic Wave Wave formed by the period or motion of a wave source.
Transverse wave Wave whose particles vibrate perpendicularly to the direction the wave is traveling.
Wavelength Length from crest to crest, trough to trough, etc. Abbreviation: upside-down y SI Unit: m
Longitudinal Wave Wave whose particles vibrate parallel to the direction the wave is traveling. (ie, compression wave, density wave, pressure wave, etc).
Compression Area where a longitudinal wave is compressed.
Rarefaction Where the density and pressure are at a minimum in a longitudinal wave.
Superposition The combination of two overlapping waves (interference).
Constructive Interference Two or more ways in which individual displacements of the same side of the equilibrium position are added together to form a resultant wave.
Destructive Interference Trough and crest cancel each other out. (Utilized by noise-cancelling headphones).
Free Boundary Reflection The medium moves perpendicular to the wave. (The medium is not fixed in place).
Fixed Boundary Reflection The medium is fixed in place, so crests bounce back as troughs, and vice versa.
Standing Wave A wave pattern that results when two waves of equal frequency, wavelength, and amplitude travel in opposite directions and interfere.
Node Zero displacement in a standing wave.
Antinode Largest displacement in a standing wave.
Sound Waves Compression waves produced by vibrating objects.
Ultrasonic Waves A frequency above 20,000 Hz.
Infrasonic Waves A frequency below 20 Hz.
Pitch A measure of how high or low a sound is perceived to be; depends on the frequency.
Subsonic Slower than the speed of sound.
Supersonic Faster than the speed of sound.
Sonic Boom When an object passes the speed of sound, this occurs.
Mach Number Multiple of the speed of sound for a moving object. (Mach 1 is the speed of sound, Mach 2 is 2x the speed of sound)
Doppler Effect An observed change in frequency when there is relative motion between the source of waves and an observer.
Sound Intensity The rate at which energy flows through a unit area perpendicular to the direction of the wave motion. Abbreviation: I SI Unit: W/(m^2) W=watts
Decibel (dB) A dimensionless unit that describes the ratio of two intensities of sound; the threshold of hearing is commonly used as the reference intensity.
Forced Vibration When objects are connected, vibrations in one object will be transferred to others, causing them to vibrate. Vibrations from one object that strikes another.
Sympathetic Vibrations Vibrations that occur because of other vibrating objects.
Natural Frequency The frequency at which an object will vibrate when set in motion.
Resonance A phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of a force applied to a system matches the natural frequency of vibration of the system, resulting in a large amplitude of vibration.
Fundamental Frequency The lowest frequency of vibration for a standing wave.
Harmonics Integral multiples of the fundamental frequency (overtones).
Harmonic series A series of frequencies that includes the fundamental frequency and successive harmonics
Timbre The musical quality of a tone resulting from the combination of harmonics present at different intensities (sound quality).
Reverberation Time The amount of time it takes for the intensity of a sound echo to decrease by 60 dB.
Anechoic Chamber A room that provides virtually no echoes.
Beats The periodic variation in the amplitude of a wave that is the superposition of two waves of slightly different frequencies.
White Light Combination of electromagnetic frequencies.
Electromagnetic Wave A wave that consists of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, which radiate outward from the source at the speed of light.
Luminous Flux Rate at which light is emitted from a source (brightness). Measured in lumens.
Illuminance luminous flux divided by surface area. SI Unit: lm/m^2 or lux
Reflection The change in direction of an electromagnetic wave at a surface that causes it to move away from the surface.
Virtual Image An image from which light rays appear to diverge, even though they are not actually focused there; a virtual image is not able to be projected onto a screen.
Concave Spherical Mirror A mirror whose reflecting surface is a segment of the inside of a sphere.
Real Image An image that is formed by the intersection of light rays (can be projected onto a screen).
Paraxial Rays Light rays that are very near the principal axis of the mirror and are used in ray diagrams. Rays farther from the axis don't necessarily intersect after reflecting from a concave mirror (spherical aberrations).
Convex Spherical Mirror A mirror whose reflecting surface is an outward-curved segment of a sphere.
Created by: ericahowe4474

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