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unit 10 chemistry

vocabulary terms

TermDefinition
calorie amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water by one degree Celsius
chemical potential energy energy stored in a substance because of its composition; most is released or absorbed as heat during chemical reactions or processes.
energy capacity to do work or produce heat; exists as potential energy, whish is stored in an object due to its composition or position, and kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion.
heat form of energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler object.
joule SI unit of heat and energy
law of conservation of energy states that in any chemical reaction or physical process that energy may change from one form to another, but it is neither created nor destroyed
specific heat amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a given substance by one degree Celsius
calorimeter an insulated device that is used to measure the amount of heat released or absorbed during a physical or chemical process.
enthalpy heat content of s system at constant pressure.
enthalpy (heat) of reaction change in enthalpy for a reaction- the difference between the enthalpy of the substances that exist at the end of the reaction and the enthalpy of the substances present at the start.
surroundings in thermochemistry, includes everything in the universe except the system.
system in thermochemistry, the specific part of the universe containing the reaction or process being studied.
thermochemistry the study of heat changes that accompany chemical reactions and phase changes
universe in thermochemistry, is the system plus the surroundings
enthalpy (heat) of combustion the enthalpy change for the complete burning of one mole of a given substance
molar enthalpy (heat) of fusion amount of heat required to melt one mole of a solid substance
molar enthalpy (heat) of vaporization amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of a liquid
thermochemical equation balanced chemical equation that includes the physical states of all of the reactants and the energy change, usually expressed ass the change in enthalpy.
Hess's law states that if two or more thermochemical equations can be added to produce a final equation for a reaction, then the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual reactions is the enthalpy change for the final reaction.
standard enthalpy (heat) of formation change in enthalpy the accompanies the formation of one mole of a compound in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states
entropy measure of the number of possible ways that the energy of a system can be distributed; related to the freedom of the system's particles to move and the number of ways they can be arranged.
free energy energy available to do work; difference between the change in enthalpy and the product of the entropy change and the kelvin temperature
second law of thermodynamics spontaneous processes always proceed in such a way that the entropy of the universe increases
spontaneous process a physical or chemical change that occurs without outside intervention and may require energy to be supplied to begin the process.
Created by: mrsklann