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# Chemistry test 2

### All Sections

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Solubility | |

Solubility | |

The resulting solution is called | |

Gas over a liquid at a particular temp | |

a given gas dissolves in a given pressure of the gas in equilibrium with the liquid | |

as you increase the pressure linearly for a | Henry's Law |

Build up saturation of nitrogen, when you resurface to quickly, it comes out of solution in the jts and tissue, this is | The Bents or The Caisson's |

Henry's Law only applies for | constant temperatures |

as temperature increases gases dissolve | less |

Pressure independent function | Ostwald solubility Coefficient |

as the ratio of the amount of substance present in one phase compared with another, the two phase being equal volume and equilibrium | Partition Coefficients |

Which gas is more soluble in the blood:gas coefficients? N2O, ether, halothane What are there bld:gas coefficients | Ether (12) Halothane(2.3) N20(0.47) |

The greater the insolubility (more equilibrium or speed) | the quicker induction rate |

Advantage of N20 | has a quicker induction rate |

Disadvantage of N20 | can lead to diffusion hypoxemia (reverse of 2nd gas effect) tx: extubate with 100% o2 |

more soluble=more potent | oil:gas coefficient (effect) |

less anesthetic to achieve desired clinical effect | potency |

more insoluble=quicker induction rate | bld:gas coefficient(equilibrium or speed) |

which gas is more potent in bld | Ether |

which gas is more potent than ether | Halothane |

on the log scale with gas is most potent on pg 7 | methoxytilurane |

Oxygen dissolves in blood at | 0.003cc/100cc/mmHg partial pressure |

C02 dissolves in blood at | 0.067cc/100cc/mmHg partial pressure |

rate of change of a quantity of any time is proportional to the quantity at that time | exponential process |

process by which the molecules of a substance transfer through a layer or area such as the surface of a solution | Diffusion |

smaller molecules diffuse | faster |

rate of diffusion of a substance across a unit area is proportional to the concentration gradient | fick's law |

this is affected by solubility of gas diffusing into liquid medium | rate of diffusion |

Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide rates of diffusion are different therefore more likely to become | hypoxemic |

Do liquid or gases take longer to diffuse | liquids |

Diffusion Rate= Reciprocal of the square root of the molecular weight | Graham's Law |

what is Graham's law equation | 1/√MW 1 divided by the square root of MW=molecular wt |

Diffusion equation | (p1-p2)(area)(solubility)/ (memb. thickness)(√molecular wt) |

what is diffusion proportional to | tension gradient (p1-p2), solubility, and directly proportional to membrane area |

what is diffusion inversely proportional to | membrane thickness, the square root of MW of the substance diffusing |

usually occurs with a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is semi permeable to one or more solutes. | osmosis |

moles per liter | osmolarity |

moles per kilogram | osmolality |

osmotic pressure related to proteins | oncotic pressure |

body osmolarity is | 300mmol per liter |

difference in osmolar gradient | oncotic pressure |

depression of vapor pressure of a solvent is proportional to the molar concentration of solute (measurement of osmolarity) | Raoult's Law |

factors that effect osmolarity | osmotic pressure, freezing pt depression, vapor pressure reduction, and boiling pt elevation. (colligative properties) |

a mixture which vaporizes in the same proportion as its constituent volume proportions | Azeotropes |

thermal state of a substance, determines whether heat will flow to or from the substance | Temperature |

a form of energy, transfer from hotter to cooler substance, energy is in the form of kinetic energy | heat |

SI unit of temperature | kelvins |

determined by general metabolic rate of person | heat production |

heat production= | 50 W/m²=80 Watts total |

four principle routes with typical heat losses | Radiation, Convection, Evaporation, Respiration |

what are the heat losses in percent | Radiation 40% Convection 30% Evaporation 20% Respiration 10% (evaporation 8%,heating of air 2%) |

carries away heat, cooler object absorbs the heat. occurs in OR accounts for 50% heat loss | Radiation |

Adjacent layer of air is heated, that heated air rises carrying away heat. | Convection |

due to loss of latent heat of vaporization (liquid on the skin) as the liquid evaporates it sucks heat out of the body | Surface Evaporation |

small part of heat loss, accounts for 8% of humidifying inspired air | Respiration |

Inspiration of dry anesthetic gases may account for intra-op | hypothermia |

physiologic control of temp is mediated by | hypothalamus |

body temp below 35 degrees C | hypothermia |

fever, may be due to endogenous pyrogens or from bacterial infections | Pyrexia |

Succinylcholine and volatile anesthetics are known triggering agents for | malignant hyperthermia |

occurs when skin at or higher than 45 degrees for prolonged time | thermal burns |

quantity of heat required to increase the temperature of an object | Specific heat capacity |

SI unit of specific heat capacity | J/(kg k) |

amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a given object by 1 kelvin | heat capacity |

SI unit of heat capacity | J/K Joules per degree of kelvin |

amount of heat required to raise the temperature 1 kilogram of a substance by 1 kelvin | specific heat capacity |

4.18 Joules = | 1 calorie |

4.18kJ= | 1 kilocalorie=1C |

calculated by knowing the specific heat comtent, mass, and temperature | body heat content |

change of state without change in temperature, requires energy | latent heat |

joules per sec | watts |

body generates how many watts? | 80 |

energy used when a substance change state from a liquid to a gas | latent heat of vaporization |

the heat required to convert 1kg of a substance from one phase to another at a given temp. | specific latent heat |

SI unit for specific latent heat | Jkg^-1 |

at temperature decreases the specific latent heat | increases |

N20 critical temperature is | 36.5 |

critical temperature for 02 | -116 C |

ways to conserve energy use | humidified gases circle circuit system humidity conservation device |

humidity in upper trachea | 34mg/L (humidify air) 9.6 watts |

warming 02 | 2 watts |

universal gas law | pv=nRt R=0.0821 L atm mol-¹K-¹ p=pressure v=vol n=#'s moles of gas R=gas constant T=temp(K) |

the total pressure exerted by a gaseous mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each individual component in a gas mixture. | Dalton's law |

SI units for pressure | pascals |

going form one force to another set of forces is called | Van de Waals Forces |

consists of identical particles of zero volume hypothetical gas | ideal gases |

equal vol of gases, at same temp. and pressure contain the same # of particles or molecules | Avogadro's Hypothesis |

one mole of ideal gas occupies | 22.4 L @STP |

how many liters of N20 is in a full tank | 1590 |

the uptake of a volatile agent is increased when it is administered simultaneously with N20 | Second Gas Effect |

One mole of particles of solute in 22.4L produces | 101.35kPa (1atm) |

half life = | time constant * logℯ=time constant*0.693 |

pressure= | force/area |

force= | pressure * area |

volume= | distance*area |

distance= | volume/area |

work= | pressuure*vol. |

Created by:
melbacs