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Chem Test Ch. 13

Chapter 13

TermDefinition
Pure Sustance A material that is composed of only one type of particle; examples of a pure substance include gold, oxygen and water.
Mixture A material made up of at least two different pure substances.
Solution homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances
heterogeneous and homogeneous solutions A homogeneous mixture has the same uniform appearance and composition throughout. Many homogeneous mixtures are commonly referred to as solutions. A heterogeneous mixture consists of visibly different substances or phases.
suspension a heterogeneous mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently large for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than one micrometer.
colloid a solution that has particles ranging between 1 and 1000 nanometers in diameter, yet are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution.
solute and solvent solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent.
aqueous solution a solution in which the solvent is water.
molarity The number of moles of solute (the material dissolved) per liter of solution. Used to express the concentration of a solution.
solubility a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.
soluble and insoluble soluble - capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water) insoluble -incapable of being dissolved
miscible and immiscible immiscible- Incapable of being mixed or blended together. Immiscible liquids that are shaken together eventually separate into layers. Oil and water are immiscible. miscible-liquids mix together well
"Like dissolves like" an expression used by chemists to remember how some solvents work. It refers to "polar" and "nonpolar" solvents and solutes. Basic example: Water is polar. Oil is non polar. Water will not dissolve oil.
unsaturated a chemical compound that contains carbon-carbon double bonds or triple bonds, such as those found in alkenes or alkynes, respectively.
saturated a chemical compound that has a chain of carbon atoms linked together by single bonds. Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.
supersaturated A solution that contains a higher than saturation concentration of solute; slight disturbance or seeding causes crystallization of excess solute.
dissociation a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Henry's law gas law "At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas that dissolves in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid."
Created by: yaxaira