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Chapter 14/15 Vocabulary and Practice

How many valence electrons does S have? 6
How many valence electrons does O-2 have? 8
Electron Dot Structure a notation that depicts balence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol of the element; the symbol represents the inner electrons and atomic nucleus
Ionic Bond the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
Octet Rule atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas. there are usually eight electrons (two for hydrogen)
Valence Electron an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
Covalent Bonds A molecule is composed of one or more chemical bonds
Dipole a molecule that has two electrically charged regions, or poles
Dipole Interaction a weak intermolecular force resultion from the attraction of oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
Hydrogen Bond a relatively strong intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of an electronegative atom in the same molecule or one nearby
Nonpolar Covalent Bond a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule ar alike and the bonding electrons ar shared equally
Polar Covalent Bond a bond formed when two differentatoms are joined by a covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally
Polar molecule a molecule in which one or more atoms is slightly negative, and one or more is slightly positive in such a way that the polarities do not cancel; water is a polar molecule
Resonance a phenomenon taht occures when two or more equally valid electron dot structures can be written for aa molecule; the actual bonding is believed to be ahybrid or mixture of the extremes represented by the resonance forms
Structural Formula a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion; each dash between two atoms indicates a pair of shared electrons
Tetrahedral Angle a bond angle of 109.5 degrees created when a central atom forms four bonds directedtoward the corners of a regular tetrahedron
Unshared Pair of Electrons a pair of balence electrons that is not involved in bonding
VSEPR Theory (valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory; because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible.
Lewis Structure prediction of the molecular shape
Electronegativity the tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when it is chemically combined whith another element
Valence Shell where the valence electrons are found
Numer of valence electrons in HCl 8
Number of valence electrons in P 5
Number of valence electrons in He 2
Number of valence electrons in Ar-3 11
Number of valence electrons in Si+2 2
Number of valence electrons in P 5
Number of valence electrons in PF5 40
Number of valence electrons in I3 -1 22
Number of valence electrons in CaCl2 16
Number of valence electrons in OCS 16
Number of valence electrons in HNO3 24
Created by: KellyBeck