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Chapter 12- Security

authentication proving that a user is genuine, and not an imposter
authentication factors five elements that can prove the genuineness of a user: what you know, what you have, what you are, what you do, where you are
authentication factors what you know, what you have, what you are, what you do, and where you are
bcrypt a popular key stretching password hash algorithm
behavioral biometrics authenticating a user by the unique actions that the user performs
birthday attack an attack that searches for any two digests that are the same
brute force attack a password attack in which every possible combination of letters, numbers, and characters is used to create encrypted passwords that are matched against those in a stolen password file.
cognitive birometrics authenticating a user through the perception, thought process, and understanding of the user.
common access card (CAC) a U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) smart card used for identification of active-duty and reserve military personnel along with civilian employees and special contractors
dictionary attack a password attack that creates encrypted versions of common dictionary words and compares them against those in a stolen password file.
federated identity management (FIM) single sign-on for networks owned by different organizations.
geolocation the identification of the location of a person or object using technology
HMAC-based one-time password (HOTP) A one-time password that changes when a specific event occurs.
hybrid attack a password attack that slightly alters dictionary words by adding numbers to the end of the password, spelling words backward, slightly misspelling words, or including special characters
key stretching a password hashing algorithm that requires significantly more time than standard hashing algorithms to create the digest
LM (LAN Manager) hash A cryptographic function found in older Microsoft Windows operating systems used to fingerprint data
multifactor authentication using more than one type of authentication credential
NTLM (New Technology LAN Manager) hash A hash used by modern Microsoft Windows operating systems for creating password digests
NTLMv2 the current version of the New Technology LAN Manager hash
one-time password (OTP) An authentication code that can be used only once or for a limited period of time.
password a secret combination of letters, numbers, and/or characters that only the user should have knowledge of
PBKDF2 a popular key stretching password hash algorithm
Personal Identity Verification (PIV) A US government standard for smart cards that covers all government employees
pre-image attack An attack in which one known digest is compared to an unknown digest
rainbow tables large pre-generated data sets of encrypted passwords used in password attacks
salt a random string that is used in hash algorithms
single-factor authentication using one type of authentication credential
single sign-on (SSO) Using one authentication credential to access multiple accounts or applications.
smart card a card that contains an integrated circuit chip that can hold information used as part of the authentication process
standard biometrics using fingerprints or other unique physical characteristics of a person's face, hands, or eyes for authentication
time-based one-time password (TOTP) a one-time password that changes after a set period of time
token a small device that can be affixed to a keychain with a window display that shows a code to be used for authentication
transitive trust a two-way relationship that is automatically created between parent and child domains in a Microsoft Active Directory Forest
username an identifier of a user logging into a system
Created by: tblass