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Addictions

Final Exam Notes

TermDefinition
Medical Complications Heart Hypertension - high blood pressure Cardiomyopathy - flabby and enlarged heart Cardio Arrhythmia - uneven heartbeat (treatment: pacemaker)
Medical Complications: Cont'd Liver (used to remove toxins from your body, metabolizes (breaks down) alcohol and other drugs) Liver damage 1) fatty liver 2) alcoholic hepatitis - inflammation of the liver 3) cirrhosis - non-treatable, only treatment is a liver transplant
Medical Complications: Cont'd Skin (largest organ in the body) - thins out, see blood vessels, thinning of circulation Brain - Korsakoff's Syndrome (short-term memory loss, elderly, men)
Medical Complications: Cont'd Pancreas (secretes enzymes to help break down starches; produces insulin Pancreatitis - blood pressure rises, not enough insulin (type 2 diabetes - untreated: blindness, amputation, heart disease), treatment: diet, oral medication, insulin injections
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) 100% preventable Caused by a pregnant woman drinking too much (during 1st trimester) Prone to seizures, facial features like that of an individual with down syndrome, intellectual disabilities, not fully developed physically, low birth weight
Cancer Heavy drinking increases the risk of breast cancer (heavy drinking = 3+ drinks per day) Oral cancer (cancer of mouth, lip, throat, tongue; 6x risker with alcohol use; 38x the risk when combined with tobacco use; treatable)
Gastritis Stomach Inflammation of stomach Ulcers Heartburn, indigestion feeling (all the time)
Medical Model Alcoholism is a disease (addiction in general) Dr. Jellneck - 1st person to think of alcoholism as a disease AA meetings Alcoholism = chronic disease with a genetic, psychosocial and environmental causes Progressive (doesn't get any better) and fatal
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Medical Model Advantages: 1) stigma reduces (people aren't weak) 2) easier to understand 3) research Disadvantages: 1) quick fix (i.e. pill) 2) avoid personal responsibility
Withdrawal Symptoms (from alcohol) Irritable, angry, tense Tremors ("shakes) Seizures Anxiety Rapid heart beat Insomnia Sweating Hallucinations (visual, auditory, bugs crawling under skin, 4 point restraints) 5-7 days: someone needs to get over acute physical symptoms
Delirium Tremens (DTs) Most serious form of alcohol withdrawal Symptoms do not go away, they persist Can last 10-14 days 2% chance of being fatal More violent/serious symptoms Withdrawal should be medically supervised
Antabuse Drug that will do nothing except if you drink alcohol while on Antabuse Get VERY sick Will prevent someone from driving if they know they are on Antabuse Stays in system for 14 days
How Substance Abuse Effects: FAMILY Impacts the people you live with Family members can be impaired (stress, tension, need to take more time off) Enabling (not encourage but not doing anything about it) (i.e. paying for alcohol, calling in sick for them)
Family Response 1) Denial - excuses ("dad's had a bad day"), isolated ("only on weekends), no problem 2) "Nagging", Shaming - not going away, "if you love me you will stop", "pull yourself together", difficult to hide
Family Response: Cont'd 3) Chaos - no longer able to hide behavior from outside world, problems become visible, financial problems, 1st efforts to seek help (family, friends) 4) Divorce/Seperation - effort to escape, alcoholic leaves; family leaves alcoholic
Family Stress 1) behaviors are unpredictable (no feeling of safety) 2) unable to understand parental behaviors (confusion, insecurity) 3) self blame 4) victims of violence 5) limited social life 6) addictive behaviors
Coping Skills Responsible Child - take on the parental role, emotionally and practically, chores "Adjuster" - follows directions, doesn't make "waves" (goes with the flow), doesn't show emotions (keeps things inside)
Coping Skills: Cont'd Placater - lessen impact/anger of someone, manage emotions (calm people down), makes excuses for family/behaviors Scape Goat - others blame you for their mistakes, identified as what is wrong with the family, bad in school, behavior problems
Adulthood Responsible Child - leaders, traits of micromanagement, need to be in control, more responsibility Adjuster - unable to trust others, unable to have relationships, hard time committing, doesn't show emotions
Adulthood: Cont'd Placater - seeking to keep the peace, care for others (profession), resentment Scape Goat - clients of the future, substance abusers, criminals
Physicians High stress job Have access to medications Very long hours Highest incidents of abuse come from ER physicians
AA Meeting Reactions Upbeat Family history Relaxed but organized AA phrases Sense of community Open, honest Inspirational Non-judgemental Family oriented holiday = tough 365 days a year (anytime, anyplace) AA coins (sobriety, 24 hr., month, year; reinforcement)
AA Meeting Reactions: Cont'd Held in churches, schools (religious aspect, over mention of God, churches are free to use) "Dry Drunk" (abstinent but irritable and angry, signs of being drunk but sober, didn't go through "steps") Economic diversity Middle Class Mostly men
Alanon Meeting Meeting for family members/spouses
Women and Alcoholism "male" = disorder, disease, problem 25% of women are alcoholics
Women in Treatment 1) identify triggers easily (associated with a loss) 2) disease appears later, but progresses quicker 3) medical complications (appears more quickly, more prone) 4) earlier treatment 5) divorced (women stick around, want to help)
Women in Treatment: Cont'd 6) poorer 7) anxious, depressed 8) victims of violence (come into treatment with history of trauma) 9) loss of children (fear them being taken away) 10) drink alone and at home (people don't know, secretive, shameful, guilty)
Adolescents and Alcoholism/Drugs 1) change (frontal lobe - still developing, judgement, decision making) 2) live forever (think they will live forever, try more crazy things, future is hard to grasp)
Adolescents and Alcoholism/Drugs: Cont'd 3) rebellion (don't listen to authority, defy rules, testing limits) 4) conformity (want to be like their peers, peer pressure)
Changes in Behavior Classroom attendance Isolation Participation in hobbies, sports, academics Stealing Acting out (against parents) Grades Change in peers (friend groups) Change in appearance Unaccounted time Increase in lying (caught lying)
Drunk Driving DUI (Driving Under Influence) Blood Alcohol Level to be legally drunk = 0.08 Downward trend of drunk driving accidents = better educated about it
How Alcohol Impairs Driving Skills vision processing = slowed reaction time "tunnel vision" = no peripheral vision impairs judgement, decision making
Criminal per se Laws (by itself) Need BAC, but also witnesses and evidence NOW - only need BAC to be convicted Can now take away license on the spot (no longer by registry)
Reasons to Decrease Drunk Driving PSA (Public Service Announcement) MADD (Mothers Against Drink Driving) - pressures to increase penalties Increase in penalties Sobriety check points Designated Drivers Drunk Driver Teses (alphabet backwards, walk on a straight line, etc)
DRAM Shoppe Laws umbrella term for laws that hold restaurant liable for a drunk driver shop can be held liable for a drunk person who left their restaurant how you cut someone off, when to cut a person off (so they aren't held liable)
Breathalyzer in Car won't let you drive if you have any alcohol in your system blow into breathalyzer to start car periodically stop car and ask driver to breath into breathalyzer get around it by having someone else blow into it
Social Host Laws umbrella term for drunk driving laws protect private home owners can be held liable if a drunk driver comes from your house home owner is held liable for drunk driver against the law to drink in your home (minors)
Treatment (Goals) 1) Abstain 2) Reduce relapse 3) Drug free lifestyle (cut out people who are bad influences, hobbies, interests, change living arrangements, learning to have fun without drugs, relax, employment, balance) 4) Medical/Health 5) Mental Health
Principles of Effective Treatment 1) no 1 treatment for everyone (individualized) 2) readily available treatment 3) multiple needs (of client) 4) adequate time (90 meetings in 90 days) 5) medication are important
Principles of Effective Treatment: Cont'd 6) detox is only the 1st step (need further treatment) 7) treatment does not need to be voluntary (can be involuntary, involuntary commitment) 8) long-term disorder (treatment also needs to be long-term; can be managed, not cured)
Relapse An event and a process Event: picking up and using again Process: process of building up to that decision (not "out of the blue")
Risks lack of follow up others using (spouse/partner) pressure depression
Staying Sober 5 or more years sober = less likely to relapse Married or employed = less likely to relapse
Should avoid all of these when recovering from alcoholism HALT Hungry Angry Lonely Tired
Warning Signs forgetting (appointments, meetings) making excuses been "cured" (there is no cure) substitution (i.e. MJ for cocaine, alcohol for cocaine)
Created by: 1343272469023156