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Chemistry Module #8

Apologia Chemistry module #8 review

QuestionAnswer
What are valence electrons? The electrons that exist farthest from an atom's nucleus. They are generally the electrons with the highest energy level.
By what is an atom's chemistry mostly determined? The valence electrons
Do atoms in the same column of the chart have the same amount of valence electrons? Yes.
What are the noble gases? The atoms in column 8A.
What does the octet rule state? Most atoms strive to attain eight valence electrons.
What is the relationship between column number and the number of valence electrons in all atoms in columns 1A-8A? The column number equals the number of valence electrons.
Do nonmetals attempt to gain or lose valence electrons? Gain.
Do metals attempt to gain or lose valence electrons? Lose.
What is an ion? An atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has become electrically charged.
What is the rule for naming ions? Positive ions have the same name as the atom from which they came. Negative ions have an "ide" suffix added to the name of the atom from which they came.
What is ionization? The process by which an atom into an ion by gaining or losing electrons.
What is ionization potential? The amount of energy needed in order to take an electron away from an atom.
Does ionization increase or decrease from left to right along the chart? Increase.
What is a periodic property? A characteristic of atoms that varies regularly across the periodic chart.
Does ionization potential increase or decrease from to to bottom of the chart? Decrease.
What is electronegativity? A measure of how strongly an atom attracts extra electrons to itself.
Does electronegativity increase or decrease from left to right on the chart? Increase.
Does electronegativity increase or decrease from top to bottom on the chart? Decrease.
Does atomic radius increase or decrease from left to right on the chart? Decrease.
Does atomic radius increase or decrease from top to bottom on the chart? Increase.
What is a covalent bond? A shared pair of valence electrons that hold atoms together in covalent compounds.
What is the difference between ionic and covalent compounds? The atoms in covalent compounds share valence electrons, while in ionic compounds, the atoms give and take electrons.
What does nitrogen protect us from? Gamma rays.
What does oxygen protect us from? X-rays.
What does ozone protect us from? Ultra-Violet rays.
Created by: Wolverine36