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LWWC BC2 - Quiz 1

Quiz #1 for Biochem

QuestionAnswer
What molecules ARE products of salivarry a-amylase? Maltose, isomaltose, dextrins
What molecule is NOT a product of salivary a-amylase? Glucose
The primary transporter of fructose into intestinal epithelial cells is... GLUT-5 ---- GLUT 2 also mentions intestinal mucousa, but NOT fructose
GLUT 1 = Blood brain barrier
GLUT 2 = Intestinal mucousa, liver, pancreas, kidney
GLUT 3 = CNS, nerve cells
GLUT 4 = Muscle and adipose
Which GLUT's are IN only? GLUT 1, GLUT 3, GLUT 4 (and GLUT 5)
Which GLUT/s is/are in and out? GLUT 2
The SGLT-1 transporter is an example of what kind of transporter? Symport
The carbogydrate transporter GLUT-4 is highly abundant in which type of cell? Muscle cells
Which of the following carbohydrate transporters is insulin-dependent? GLUT-4
In humans, what is the fate of cellulose in digestion? It is excreted in the feces
When levels of glucose are high relative to fructose-6-phosphate, glucokinase resides where in the cell? In the Cytosol
When levels of glucose are LOW relative to fructose-6-Phosphate, glucokinase resides where in the cell? The nucleus
In what cell type is glucokinase found? Hepatocytes (liver), pancreas, and kidney cells
In what cell type/s is Hexokinase found? Muscle, adipose, neurons, RBCs, brain...
What is the net balanced equation for anaerobic glycolysis? Glucose +2ADP + 2Pi ---> 2 lactate+2 ATP +2H2O + 2H+
Anaerobic = ? becomes lactate and does NOT use O2
Aerobic = Uses O2 - muscle cells can contract frequently without fatigue
Which enzyme catalyzes the rate-determining reaction step of glycolysis? Phosphofructokinase-1
What is the phosphorylation state of PFK-2/FBPase-2 at low insulin/glucagon ration? Net phosphorylated
When PFK-2/FBPase-2 is in the above state, what is the state of glycolysis in the hepatocyte? Negative for glycolysis
What is the net reaction from 1 Glucose through Glycolysis+PDH+TCA? 6 CO2, 2 FADH, 2 GTP, 2 ATP, 10 NADH
Which small molecule negatively regulates the rate-determining step of glycolysis? ATP
In which cellular compartment does glycolysis occur? The cytosol
When muscle cells take up fructose, what is the immediate product? Fructose-6-phosphate
What is the function of lactate dehydrogenase in metabolism? regeneration of NAD+
What are the 3 regulated steps in TCA? Citrate synthase, Isocitrate degydrogenase, apha-ketagluterate
In which cellular compartment does the pyruvate dehydrogenase occur? Mitochondria
Which of the following is NOT a fate of pyruvate in humans? Ethanol (is NOT made naturally in humans)
Which combination of cofactors does the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex utilize? Lipoamide, coA, and FAD
What are the products of 1 glucose molecules through the Krebs cycle? 4 CO2 + 6 NADH2 + 2 FADH2 + 2 GTP
Which of the following Krebs cycle enzymes is NOT REGULATED by [NADH]/[NAD+] ratios? Aconitase
Which of the following Krebs cycle enzymes IS REGULATED by [NADH]/[NAD+] ratios? Citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, a-ketaglutarate dehydrogenase
What are the inhibitors Citrate Synthase? Citrate, succinyl CoA, and NADH
What are the Activators of Citrate Synthase? OAA, and Acetyl CoA
What are the inhibitors of a-ketagluterate Dehydrogenase? NADH/NAD+, and Succinyl CoA
What are the activators of a-ketagluterate dehydrogenase? Ca2+
What are the inhibitors of Isocitrate DH? NADH/NAD+ ONLY
What are the activators of Isocitrate DH? CA2+ and ADP
Which of the following processes is NOT cataplerotic with respect to TCA? Fatty Acid oxidation
What is the function of the malate-aspertate shuttle we have discussed so far? Transportation of reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria for electron transport
What is the ultimate electron acceptor in Electron transport? Oxygen
Carbohydrate digestion begins with ________? Glycosidases in the mouth
What cleaves the alpha (1-4) bonds of complex carbohydrates? A-amylase
What are the symptoms of dissaccharide intolerance? Cramps, osmotic diarrhea, flatulence
When levels of glucose are high relative to fructose-6 phosphate, Glucokinase resides where in the cell? Cytosol
In what cell types are glucokinase found? Hepatocytes, Pancreatic Beta-cells
In what cell types is Hexokinase found? adipocytes (adipose), MM, neurons, RBC
Which enzyme catalyzes the rate-determining reaction step of glycolysis? Phosphofructokinase-1
What small molecule is the chief regulator of glycolysis? Fructose-2,6-Bisphosphate
What is the net balanced equation for aerobic glycolysis? Glucose+2ADP+ 2Pi + 2NAD+ --> 2 pyruvate +2 ATP + 2 NADH
A deficiency in aldose B in the liver requires the exclusion of what molecules from the diet? Sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose
What is a direct metabolic fate of pyruvate? Alanine, Oxaloaccetate, and Acetyl CoA (NOT Vit K)
What is a product of 1 round of the Krebs cycle? 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 GTP, 2 CO2
Assuming the glycerophosphate shuttle, what is the net ATP obtained from 1 molecule of glucose following Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle? 38 ATP
High concentration of which of the following would lead to inscreased activity in the TCA cycle? Ca2+
Which electron carrier is only capable of carrying a single electron in the electron transport chain? Cytochrome C
The activity of Cytochrome C oxidase (complex IV) is largely controlled by the availability of which molecule? Cytochrome c (fe2+)
What is the final acceptor of electrons from the electron transport? O2
What compound is the starting point for gluconeogenesis in the cytosol? Oxaloacetate
What is the net phosphorylation state of phosphofructose-2/fructose-bisphosphate-2 in the well-fed state (HIGH) insulin/low glucagon? Net phosphorylated
Which of the following enzymes is NOT a target of PKA? Glycogen Phosphoylase
Which of the following molecules diverts pyruvate away from TCA and towards gluconeogenesis? Acetyl CoA
Myocytes are unable to supply glucose to the blood stream for delivery to other tissues because.... why? They lack glucose 6 phosphate
Created by: walkingbyfaith09