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chem exam 3

chem 101

TermDefinition
Steps for Writing Lewis Structures Find the total valence electrons Put the least electroneg atom in the center. Put two electrons between atoms to form a chemical bond. make octs If central atom does not have an octet, move electrons from outer atoms to form double or triple bonds.
advanced steps If you have extra electrons after the above steps add them to the central atom. Note: elements in the Period Three (usually S, P, or Xe) can have more than eight valence electrons. use formal charges
Notable Exceptions to the Octet Rule H only needs 2 valence electrons. Be and B don’t need 8 valence electrons. S and P sometimes have more than 8 val. Electrons. Elements in Period Three, Four, etc (on the periodic table) can hold more than 8 valence electrons.
formal charge equation formal charge=valence electrons-nobonding valence-(bonding electrons/2) use for S an P
AX2 linear 180 deg Sp hybrid
AX3 TRIGONAL PLANAR 120 DEG HYBRID SP^2
AX4 TETRAHEDRAL 109.5 DEG SP^3
AX5 TRIANGULAR BIPYRRIMIDAL 120,90, 180 DEG SP^3D^2
AX^6 OCTAHEDRAL 90 SP^3D^2
AX2N1 BENT 120 SP^2
AX2N2 BENT 109.5 SP^3
AX3N1 TRIGONAL PYRAMIDAL 109.5 SP^3
AX4N1 seesaw 90, 120 and 180
AX3N2 T-shaped 90 and 180
AX5N1 square pyramidal 90 and 180
AX4N2 square planar 90 and 180
Electron-pair Geometry (LINEAR) WHEN ANGLE IS 180
Electron-pair Geometry (trigonal planar) 120 DEG
Electron-pair Geometry (tetrahedral) 109.5 DEG
Electron-pair Geometry (trigonal bipyramidal ) SEASAW AND T SHAPED MOLECULES
Electron-pair Geometry (octahedral) `SQUARES
Created by: Virajasaur