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Unit 20 Definitions

Unit 20: Land Use Controls and Property Development

Enabling Acts Delegation of the state's authority to counties and local municipalities to enact ordinances in keeping with general laws
Home-Rule Unit Any municipality with a population in excess of 25,000 or any county in which a chief executive officer is elected by the people
Comprehensive Plan A government plan that outlines a proactive plan for development
Zoning Ordinances Local laws that implement and control use of land within designated areas
Bulk Zoning Also called density zoning, this type of zoning imposes restrictions to prevent overcrowding. Ex. setbacks, max building height, or % open area
Aesthetic Zoning Specifies a certain type of architecture for new buildings
Incentive Zoning Ensures certain uses are incorporated into development. Ex. requiring street floor of office building to house retail establishments.
Taking Seizure of property by the government with just compensation; however, the property itself is not used for public use as with eminent domain
Inverse Condemnation An action brought by a property owner who is seeking just compensation for land when it is being taken and not used for public use
Before-and-After method Used to determine compensation to a property owner. Value of owner’s remaining property after the taking is subtracted from the value of the whole parcel before the taking
Zoning Hearing Board A community established board that hears complaints about the effects of zoning ordinances on specific parcels of property
Nonconforming Use Allowing an improvement that does not meet zoning requirements to remain in place because the improvement existed prior to the ordinance being enacted.
Conditional-Use Permit Granted to a property owner to allow a special use of property, defined as an allowable conditional use, within that zone. Ex. day care in residential area.
Variance Provides relief if zoning regulations deprive an owner of the unreasonable use of the property. Run with the land.
Building Codes Specify construction standards that must be met when constructing or repairing a building.
Certificate of Occupancy Issued by an inspector once an improvement is found to comply with building codes and ordinances.
Subdivider Person who buys an undeveloped acreage and divides it into smaller lots for sale to individual developers or for their own use
Developer Improves land that has been subdivided by constructing homes or buildings and the lots for saleTr
Land Development Plan A plan that must comply with the overall goals of the municipality and is required before subdivision can be developed
Plat Maps Detailed maps that illustrate geographic boundaries of individual lots and show block, sections, streets, public easements and monuments in a prospective subdivision
Percolation test Test of soil to determine ability of ground to absorb and drain water and indicates whether land is suitable for development and installation of septic tanks or injection wells for sewage treatment.
Impact Fees Charges made in advance to cover anticipated costs to off-site capital improvements such as water and sewer facilities expansion, additional roads, and school expansions.
Density Zoning (Bulk Zoning) Ordinance that restricts the average number of houses per acre that can be build in a subdivision
Gross Density The density of the average number o units in the development
Restrictive Covenants Limitations to use property imposed by a past or current owner and are binding to future grantees
Laches The legal principal that a right may be lost through one's failure to assert it
Covenants, Conditions, and Restrictions (CC&R) Private rules set by developer that set standards for all parcels within the subdivision.
Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure Act of 1968 Enacted by US Congress to protect consumers from fraud when selling or leasing land.
Created by: Asimon0722
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