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unit 5 AP chem

vocabulary for unit 5

TermDefinition
chemical kinetics area of chemistry that concerns reaction rates
reaction rate change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit of time
instantaneous rate value of the rate at a particular time
rate law also known as differential rate law
rate constant property constant in the relationship between reaction rates and reactant concentration
order positive or negative exponent determined by experiment of reactant concentration in a rate law
differential rate law experiment gives rate of reaction as a function of concentration often called the rate law
integrated rate law exponent that shows the concentration of a reactant as a function of time
method of initial rates method for experimentally determining the form of the rate law for a reaction
initial rate instantaneous rate determined just after reaction begins
overall reaction order sum of n + m
first order reaction rate of reaction depends on a concentration to the first power
integrated first order rate law will always plot a straight line
half life of a reactant time required for a reactant to reach 1/2 its original concentration
integrated second order rate law rate of reaction depends on concentration to second power
zero order reaction rate is always constant
integrated zero order rate law plot of concentration of A versus t gives a straight line slope of -k
pseudo first order rate law law obtained by simplification of a more complicated one
reaction mechanism series of elementary steps involved in chemical reaction
intermediate species is neither a reactant nor a product but is formed and consumed in the reaction sequence
elementary step reaction whose rate law can be written from its molecularity
molecularity number of species that must collide to produce the reaction represented by an elemental step in a reaction mechanism
unimolecular step reaction step involving only 1 molecule
bimolecular step reaction involving collision of 2 molecules
termolecular step reaction involving the simultaneous collision of 3 molecules
rate-determining step slowest step in a reaction mechanism, determines overall rate
collision model model based on an idea that molecule must collide to react used to account for observed characteristics of reaction rates
activation energy threshold energy that must be overcome to produce a chemical reaction
activated complex (transition state) arrangement of atoms found at top of potential energy barrier as a reaction proceeds from reactants to products
molecular orientation orientation of molecules during collision some of which can lead to reaction while others cannot
steric factor factor (always less than 1) reflects fraction of collisions with orientation that can produce a chemical reaction
Arrhenius equation equation representing rate constant as k=Ae ^-E/RT
frequency factor A replaces zp
enzyme large molecule, usually a protein that catalyzes biological reactions
catalyst substance that speeds up a reaction without being consumed
homogeneous catalyst present in the same phase as reacting molecules
heterogeneous catalyst exists in different phases
adsorption collection of 1 substance on the surface of another
Created by: mrsklann