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Chapter 14 Unemploym

stacked stack of economics

unemployed the condition of not having a job but being a member of the labor force. to be considered unemployed, a person must be jobless yet actively searching for a job by having searched in the last four weeks.
employed the condition of having a job
labor force the number of employed plus unemployed people age sixteen and over
unemployment rate the number of employed persons divided by the number of people in the labor force
labor force participation rate the labor force divided by the working age population
employment-to-population ratio the number of employed people divided by the working age population
marginally attached workers people ready and available to work who have conducted a job search within the past twelve months but have not searched in the last four weeks and are therefore not included in the official unemployment statistics
discouraged workers people who, for whatever reason, have given up the job search and are not officially classified as unemployed. the presence of discouraged workers i the economy means that the official unemployment rate understates actual unemployment
U3 the official unemployment rate published by the BLS
U1 the unemployment rate that only includes people unemployed fifteen weeks or longer, as published by the BLS
U2 the unemployment rate that only includes people who have lost a job as opposed to those who have quit or those who have entered or re-entered the labor force, as published by the BLS
U4 the unemployment rate that adds discouraged workers to the official unemployment rate, as published by the BLS
U5 the unemployment rate that includes all marginally attached workers, as published by the BLS
U6 the most all-inclusive measure of unemployment as published by the BLS. includes all those listed in U1-U5 plus those who are employed part time because of economic reasons
frictional unemployment voluntary unemployment that occurs when a person enters the labor force and looks for a job. a recent graduate looking for her first job out of college would be considered frictionally unemployed. frictional unemployment always exists in an economy
creative destruction the ongoing process of technological innovation and industrial decline. as one industry is born, another industry is dying. the death of old industries frees up land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship that can now be employed in the new industry.
structural unemployment unemployment that is caused by the permanent destruction of jobs in a dying industry, a mismatch between the skills necessary for employment and the seekers' skill sets, and government programs that create incentives to remain unemployed
efficiency wage a wage that exceeds the market wage. efficiency wages encourage worker productivity but also play a role in creating unemployment
cyclical unemployment unemployment associated with downturns in the business cycle. most economists view this as harmful and believe that government intervention is necessary to prevent it from occuring
full employment the level of employment that exists when the economy is being productively efficient. full employment is associated with an economy at the natural rate of unemployment
natural rate of unemployment the rate of unemployment that exists when there is no cyclical unemployment present in the economy
Created by: aharbinson



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