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Physics 1

Vocabulary for the first half of Physics

TermDefinition
Physics Study of the physical world
Scientific Method Step-by-step method used to solve problems
Model Idea, system, or structure that represents reality
Hypothesis Testable prediction
Theory Explanation based on observations and experiments
Scientific Law Rule of nature without an explanation
Accuracy How close a measurement is to an accepted value
Precision Refinement of a measurement
Mechanics Physics of motion and forces
Standard Exact quantity used for comparison
Independent Variable Variable changed by the experimentor
Dependent Variable Measurable outcome in an experiment
Mass Amount of matter in an object
Volume Amount of space occupied by an object
Density Mass per unit volume
Significant Figures Numbers in a measurement that carry meaning
Scientific notation Method for sharing large and small numbers (*10^x)
Dimensional Analysis Multiplying measurements by ratios to change units
Mechanics Physics of motion and forces
Kinematics Describing motion without regard to forces
Distance Total length of path traveled
Displacement Change in position including direction
Speed Distance divided by time
Velocity Rate of change in position
Acceleration The rate of change in velocity
Frame of Reference Point of comparison used to describe motion
Free Fall Occurs under the influence of gravity only
Scalar Physical quantity with magnitude but no direction
Vector Physical quantity with magnitude but no direction
Resultant Vector that represents the sum of 2 or more vectors
Pythagorean Theorem A^2 + B^2 = C^2
sin θ Opposite / Hypotenuse
cos θ Adjacent / Hypotenuse
tan θ Opposite / Adjacent
X-Component Projection of a vector along the X-axis
Y-Component Velocity compared to a particular reference frame
Projectile Object under influence of gravity only
Trajectory Parabolic path followed by a projectile
Range Horizontal displacement covered by a projectile
Relative Velocity Velocity compared to a particular reference frame
Force Push or pull
Inertia Resistance to a change in motion
Newton's 1st Law Objects maintain a constant velocity without net force
Newton's 2nd Law Net force = mass * acceleration
Newton's 3rd Law Every action has an equal and opposite reaction
Net Force Vector sum of all forces acting on an object
Equilibrium Condition that exists when net force equals 0
Weight The effect of gravity on mass
Normal Force Force perpendicular to a surface
Kinetic Friction Force opposing motion of sliding objects
Coefficient of Friction Ratio of the friction force to the normal force
Energy Ability to cause change
W-KE Theorem Net work is equal to change in kinetic energy
Gravitational PE Stored energy due to mass, gravity, and height
Elastic PE Energy stored when objects are compressed or stretched
Spring Constant Stiffness of a spring
Mechanical Energy Total KE and PE for an object
Conservation of ME In the absence of friction, ME remains constant
Power Rate at which work is done
Contact Force Force between two objects that are touching
Field Force Force acting over a distance
Static Friction Force opposing a horizontal force for stationary objects
Work Product of force and distance
Kinetic Energy Energy associated with motion
SI Unit of Force Newton (N)
SI Unit of Work Joule (J)
SI Unit of Energy Joule (J)
SI Unit of Power Watt (W)
SI Unit of Weight Newton (N)
SI Unit of Coefficient of Friction There is none
SI Unit for Distance meters (m)
SI Unit for Displacement meters (m)
SI Unit for Speed meters per second (m/s)
SI Unit for Velocity meters per second (m/s)
SI Unit for Acceleration meters per second squared (m/s^2)
SI prefix for 1,000 Kilo
SI prefix for 1,000,000 Mega
SI prefix for 0.01 centi
SI prefix for 0.001 milli
SI prefix for 10 Deca
SI prefix for 1*10^-9 nano
SI prefix for 0.1 deci
SI prefix for 1*10^9 Giga
Created by: 16howeri