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Chemistry Module 5

Review for exam

solid state or phase of matter that has a definite shape and volume.
liquid indefinite shape an definite volume
gas indefinite shape and volume
plasma electrons are separated from atoms
volume space occupied by an object
particle arrangement solid: packed tightly and can't move or fall apart
particle arrangement liquid: close together but not tight like a solid but just enough to slide past each other
particle arrangement gas: they are very far apart and they are always flying around at really high speeds.
particle arrangement plasma: are far apart like gas but move even faster; highly energetic ions; both + and -
attraction of particles solid: is strong enough to hold all the particles together in a fixed three-dimensional arrangement.
attraction of particles liquid: the particles can flow past each other and take shape of something its in
attraction of particles gas: move by themselves in every direction
attraction of particles plasma: of extreme temperatures, the particles move so quickly that their collisions release electrons from the atoms.
melting the process of a solid transforming to a liquid. When heat is added to a solid, the particles’ kinetic energy increases and they vibrate more and more violently.
freezing process of transforming a liquid to a solid by the removal of heat, the reverse of the melting process. As the sample of liquid loses heat, the particles’ movement slows down.
evaporating The process of transforming a liquid to a gas is called evaporating. As heat is added, the particles in the liquid have a greater kinetic energy and move faster.
condensing This process occurs when the temperature of the gas is cooled enough for the particles to slow down and attract each other, forming a liquid.
Kinetic molecular theory 1. The particles of a gas are in constant random motion. the greater the kinetic energy the faster they move. They travel in straight lines really fast.
Kinetic molecular theory 2. Gases consist of large numbers of tiny particles.
Kinetic molecular theory 3. Collisions experienced by gas particles are elastic collisions
Kinetic molecular theory 4. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion experienced between gas particles.
Kinetic molecular theory 5. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles are directly proportional to the temperature of the gas. ( Kelvin)
relationship between pressure and volume inverse relationship: pressure and volume is an inverse relationship. When the volume decreases the pressure increases.
relationship between temperature and pressure vice-versa when temp rises so does pressure. when temp lowers so does pressure.
relationship between temperature and volume An increase in the temperature of a gas means an increase in the average kinetic energy of the gas particles
if pressure goes up volume --------- while temperature is being held constant up
If volume goes up while holding temperature constant, what happens to the pressure? the pressure goes down
If pressure goes up while volume is being held constant, what happens to the temperature? temperature goes down
what does STP represent 1 standard temp: 0 degrees Celsius 1 Standard temp: 273 K 1 standard pressure:1 atm 1 standard pressure: 760 torr 1 standard pressure: 14.7 psi
pure solution a sample of matter that is made up of one type of element or compound
mixture A combination of two or more substances, each retaining its individual composition and properties.
filtration insoluble solid from a liquid. An insoluble substance is one that does not dissolve in the liquid. precipitates are insoluble solids, so the precipitate will stay behind on the filter paper as the water and dissolved particles pass through the filter.
evaporation separating a soluble solid from a liquid. When this process is done in container that is open, the evaporated water is lost to the atmosphere, but the salt can be isolated.
distillation separating a liquid from a solution. this process is the same as evaporation, except that this process captures the evaporated liquid and condenses it into separate containers so it can separate the solute and solvent.
Chromatography separate a solution containing multiple components with different degrees of polarity.
homogeneous mixture : same a mixture where the composition and properties are uniform, or the same throughout the mixture. (Vegetable soup)(granite is a mixture or mica, quartz, and feldspar.)
heterogeneous mixture: different a mixture where the composition of the properties are not uniform throughout the mixture.(dissolving sugar into water)
solvent the substance with a greater quantity. the dissolving medium
solute the substance in the lower quantity or the substance that is being dissolved.
molarity the # of moles of solute in one liter of the solution
percent by mass the # of grams of solute in 100 grams of solution.
what are two factors that affect solubility and how. an increase or decrease in temperature or pressure can affect solubility.
how does the amount of solute affect the boiling point of a substance? vapor pressure of a liquid is lowered by the addition of a dissolved solute, the solution will need to be heated to a higher temperature for its vapor pressure to equal the atmospheric pressure.
how does the amount of solute effect vapor pressure? When a solute that does not evaporate well, it dissolves in a liquid to form a solution; the vapor pressure above that solution will be lower than the vapor pressure of the pure solvent.
how does the amount of solute effect the freezing point of a substance? When solutes are dissolved in a liquid to form a solution, the solute particles interrupt the freezing process as the solvent particles try to form solid crystals.
Created by: HannahErin
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