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Chem F325

Chemistry Definition

TermDefinition
Rate of Reaction The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.
Order With respect to a reactant it is the power to which the concentration of the reactant is raised in the rate equation.
Rate Constant The constant that links the rate of reaction with the concentration of the reactants raised to the powers of their orders in the rate equation.
Overall Order The sum of the individual orders.
Half Life The time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.
Reaction Mechanism A series of steps that together make up the overall reaction.
Rate Determining Step The slowest step in the reaction mechanism of a multi step reaction.
Dynamic Equilibrium Exists in a closed system when the rate of the forwards reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction and therefore the concentration of the reactants and products are constant despite constantly interchanging.
Bronsted-Lowry Acid A Proton (H+) donor.
Bronsted-Lowry Base A Proton (H+) acceptor.
Strong Acid An acid that is completely dissociated in solution.
Weak Acid An acid that is partially dissociated in solution.
The Ionic Product of Water Kw=[H+][OH-]
Conjugate Acid-Base Pair A pair of two species that can transform into each other by gain or loss of a proton.
A Buffer Solution A mixture that minimises pH changes on addition of small amounts of acid/base.
Equivalence Point The point in a titration at which the volume of one solution has reacted exactly with the volume of the second solution.
End Point The point in a titration at which there are equal concentrations of the weak acid and conjugate base forms of the indicator.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Neutralisation (△Hneut) The energy change that accompanies the neutralisation of an aqueous acid by an aqueous base to form one mole of H2O, under standard conditions.
Hess's Law If a reaction can take place by more than one route and the initial and final conditions are the same, the total enthalpy change is the same for each route.
Lattice Enthalpy (△Hle) The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of one mole of an ionic compound from its gaseous ions, under standard conditions.
Standard Enthalpy of Formation (△Hf) The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.
First Ionisation Energy (△Hi1) The enthalpy change accompanying the removal of one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ ions.
Second Ionisation Energy (△Hi2) The enthalpy change accompanying the removal of one electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to from one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
Standard Enthalpy of Atomisation (△Hat) The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of gaseous atoms forms from the element in its standard state.
First Electron Affinity (△Hea1) The enthalpy change accompanying the addition of one electron to each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1- ions.
Second Electron Affinity (△Hea2) The enthalpy change accompanying the addition of one electron to each ion in one mole of gaseous 1- ions to form one mole of gaseous 2- ions.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Solution (△Hs) The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of a compound is completely dissolved in water under standard conditions.
Standard Enthalpy Change of Hydration (△Hhyd) The enthalpy change that takes place when one mole of isolated gaseous ions is dissolved in water forming one mole of aqueous ions under standard conditions.
Entropy The quantitative measure of the degree of disorder in a system. A system becomes more energetically stable when it becomes more disordered.
Free Energy Change (△G) The balance between enthalpy, entropy and temperature.
D-Block Element An element in which the highest energy level is a d-sub shell.
Transition Element A d-block element that forms an ion with a partially filled d-sub shell.
Complex Ion A transition metal ion bonded to one or more ligands by coordinate bonds (dative covalent bonds).
Ligand A molecule or ion that can donate a pair of electrons with the transition metal ion to form a coordinate bond.
Coordination number The total number of coordinate bonds formed between a central metal ion and its ligands.
Ligand Substitution A reaction in which one ligand in a complex ion is replaced by another ligand.
Stereoisomers Species with the same structural formula but a different arrangement of the atoms in space.
Optical Isomerism Stereoisomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other.
Kstab, The Stability Constant The equilibrium constant for an equilibrium existing between a transition metal ion surrounded by water ligands and the complex formed when the same ion has undergone a ligand substitution.
Oxidation The loss of electrons and an increase in oxidation number.
Reduction The gain of electrons and a decrease in oxidation number.
Redox Reaction A reaction in which reduction and oxidation happen at the same time.
Oxidation Number The number of electrons that an atom uses to bond with atoms of another element.
Oxidising Agent Causes something to be oxidised, it itself is readily reduced.
Reducing Agent Causes something to be reduced, it itself is readily oxidised.
The Standard Electrode Potential Of a half cell, the e.m.f of a half cell compared with a standard hydrogen half cell, measured at 298K with solution concentrations of 1moldm-3 and a gas pressure of 100 kPa.
Created by: alice104