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Chem Unit 3 Vocab

QuestionAnswer
solution uniform mixture containing solids, liquids, or gases; also known aka homogeneous mixture
solute one or more substances dissolved in a solution
solvent substance that dissolves a solute to form a solution; most plentiful substance in the solution
soluble describes a substance that can be dissolved in a given solvent
insolube describes a substance that cannot be dissolved in a given solvent
immiscible describes two liquids that can be mixed together but separate shortly after you cease mixing them
miscible describes two liquids that a soluble in each other
solvation process of surrounding solute particles with solvent particles to form a solution; occurs only where and when the solute and solvent particles come in contact with each other
solubility maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure
saturated solution contains maximum amount of dissolved solute for a given amount of solvent at a certain temperature and pressure
unsaturated solution contains less dissolved solute for a given temperature and pressure than a saturated solution; has capacity to hold more solute
supersaturated solution contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution at the same temperature
Henry's Law at a given temperature, the solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the liquid
percent by volume ratio of volume of solute to total volume
percent by mass percentage determined by the ratio of mass of each element to the total mass of the compound
molarity number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution; aka molar concentration
molality ratio of number of moles of solute dissolved in one kg of solvent; aka molal concentration
dilution making a liquid more dilute
colligative properties physical property of a solution that depends on the number, but not the identity, of the dissolved solute particles
electrolytes ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric current
nonelectrolytes does not dissociate in solution and therefore doesn't produce any ions (ex. sugar)
vapor pressure lowering lowering of vapor pressure of a solvent by the addition of a nonvolatile solute to the solvent
boiling point elevation temperature difference between a solution's boiling point and a pure solvent's boiling point
freezing point depression difference in temperature between a solution's freezing point and the freezing point of its pure solvent
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