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C3 organic

C3 organic edexcel

QuestionAnswer
Organic chemistry
What is the formula of ethanol? CH3-CH2-O-H or C2H5OH
Describe the conditions for the production of ethanol by fermentation of carbohydrates warm temperatures (between 35 and 40C), under anaerobic conditions, with yeast to provide an enzyme for this reaction
Write the equation for the fermentation of sugar C6H12O6 (+ yeast)  2 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH
Describe disadvantages of production of ethanol by fermentation The reactant (sugar) requires a lot of land and suitable climate; the product of fermentation is a mixture that needs to be separated by fractional distillation; it is a batch process and takes a long time
What is the equation for the production of ethanol by hydration of ethane? C2H4 + H2O  C2H5OH
What is the equation for the DEhydration of ethanOL? C2H5OH  C2H4 + H2O
Describe disadvantages of production of ethanol by hydration of Ethene The reactant (ethene) is coming from a non-renewable source (crude oil); a lot of energy is required to maintain high temperature
Describe advantages of production of ethanol by hydration of Ethene It is a continuous process
Describe advantages of production of ethanol by fermentation The reactant (sugar) is coming from a renewable source (plants); little energy is required
Define a homologous series a series of compounds which: have the same general formula; differ by a CH2; show a gradual variation in physical properties as exemplified by their boiling points; have similar chemical properties
Name the first 4 alcohols Methanol, Ethanol, Propanol and Butanol
Name the first 4 carboxylic acids Methanoic acid, Ethanoic acid, Propanoic acid and Butanoic acid
What is the general formula of AlkAnes? CnH2n+2
What is the general formula of AlkEnes? CnH2n
Describe the reaction that happens to Ethanol left in a room? Ethanol will oxidise (react with Oxygen) to become Ethanoic Acid
Describe the use of vinegar as a flavouring and as a preservative
Name the products of reaction of ethanoic acid with a metal like Magnesium Hydrogen gas and a salt, Magnesium Ethanoate
Name the products of reaction of ethanoic acid with bases, like Sodium Hydroxide Water and a salt, Magnesium Ethanoate
Name the products of reaction of ethanoic acid with carbonates Carbon Dioxide gas and a salt, Magnesium Ethanoate
Describe what you would see when you place ethanoic acid in universal indicator the indicator will turn red
Describe what you would see when you react ethanoic acid with sodium carbonate Bubbles of carbon dioxide gas
Describe what you would see when you react ethanoic acid with Calcium Bubbles of hydrogen gas
Name the products of reaction of ethanol with ethanoic acid ethyl ethanoate and water
Name the products of reaction of propanol with ethanoic acid propyl ethanoate and water
Name the products of reaction of methanol with butanoic acid methyl butanoate and water
Write the equation for the reaction of ethanol with ethanoic acid using molecular and structural formulae CH3-CH2-O-H + CH3-CH2-CO-O-H  CH3-CH2-CO-O-CH2-CH3 + H2O
What is the structural formula of Ethyl Ethanoate? CH2-COO-CH2-CH3
Describe uses of esters as flavourings and perfumes, as they are pleasant smelling
Describe uses of polyesters as fibres to make fabric and as plastics for making bottles
can polyesters be recycled? yes, to form fleece that is used to make clothing
Describe the structure of oils and fats they are tri-esters of glycerols
Describe how oils can be converted to soap By boiling with concentrated sodium hydroxide
Name the products of the reaction of oils and fats when boiling with concentrated alkali solution soaps and glycerol
Describe the structure of soaps sodium or potassium salts of long carbon chain carboxylic acids
Describe how a soap removes dirt or grease part of the soap, the head, is an anion is hydrophilic and dissolves in water; the other part, the tail, is hydrophobic and will dissolves in dirt or grease; a micelle forms and lifts away the grease spot; the micelle is washed away with rinsing waters
Describe how liquid oils can be converted to solid fats by catalytic hydrogenation
Describe what happens to the oil structure during catalytic hydrogenation the C=C unsaturation is removed when the Hydrogen adds on either side of the C=C bond
Describe how oil can be converted to margarine add H2 to the oil with a Nickel catalyst
How would you draw an oil? Draw a coat hanger; add C=O; add a wiggly chain
Created by: UrsulineChem