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NYS Regents Chemistry

Heat of vaporization (Hv) heat required to BOIL one gram of a liquid(see table B for water’s Hv)
Heat of fusion (Hf) heat required to MELT one gram of a solid (see table B for water’s Hf)
Absolute zero zero kelvin or –273 *C, the lowest possible temperature.
Activation energy energy required to take reactants or products to the top of a potential energy diagram. Every reaction has activation energy
Spontaneous reaction process that occurs on its own, without outside energy other than activation energy. Usually exothermic(decrease in enthalpy) with an increase in entropy
Thermochemistry the study of the heat changes that occur during chemical reactions
Chemical potential energy energy stored in bonds
System the chemicals whose bonds are being broken and reformed during a reaction
Surroundings the air or water that will gain energy from the system during an exothermic reaction or lose energy to the system during an endothermic reaction.
Law of Conservation of Energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transferred from one form to another
Endothermic a reaction that requires a net absorption of energy. The PE of the bonds increases while the KE of the surroundings decreases (Feels cold)
Exothermic a reaction that has a net release of energy. The PE of the bonds decreases while the KE of the surroundings increases (Feels warm)
Specific Heat Capacity the amount of energy (in joules or calories) required to raise the temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius or Kelvin.
Calorimeter an insulated reaction apparatus that will allow for a more accurate measure of the change in temperature during a reaction.
Enthalpy the measure of heat energy of a chemical, generally expressed in joules or calories.
Entropy the amount of “chaos” or disorder of a chemical. Represented by delta S
Heat of Reaction the enthalpy change of a reaction. Also known as delta H, or “q” in the heat formulas.
Fusion (the phase change) melting; solid -> liquid
Vaporization boiling; liquid -> gas
Sublimation phase change solid -> gas
Crystallization phase change liquid -> solid; also known as freezing or solidification
Deposition phase change gas -> solid
Condensation phase change gas -> liquid
Created by: etucci