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Organic Chemistry

module 4

name of substituent CH3 methyl
name of substituent C2H5 ethyl
name of substituent C3H7 propyl
name of substituent C4H9 butyl
name of substituent Cl chloro
name of substituent Br bromo
name of substituent I iodo
name of substituent F flouro
name of substituent OH hydroxy
what type of formula is this C4H10O molecular
Impirical formula is simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in compound
what is the general formula for; alkane alkene carboxylic acid ketone CnH2n+2 CnH2n CnH2n+1OH CnH2nO2 CnH2nO
what does displayed formula show relative positions and bonds in compound
what type of formula is this CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH3 structural
whats the ending for alkane -ane
whats the ending for alkene -ene
whats the ending for alkyne -yne
prefix for haloalkane halo-
ending for alcohol -ol
ending for aldehyde + general formula -al + RCHO
ending for ketone +general formula -one +RCOR
ending for carboxylic acid+general formula -oic acid +ROOH
ending for acyl chloride +general formula -oyl chloride +RCOCL
ending for amide + general formula -amide +RCONH2
ending for ester + general formula -yl -oate +RCOOR
ending for nitrile +general formula -nitrile +RCN
ending for amine +general formula -amine +RNH2
prefix for nitro +general formula nitro- +RNO2
ending for sulphonic acid +general formula -sulphonic acid +RSO3H
ending for ether +general formula -oxy -ane +ROR
what are the 5 types of isomerism Structural isomerism; chain position functional group Stereoisomerism: geometrical optical
whats the difference/similarities in chain isomerism different carbon position similar chemical properties slightly different physical properties (more branching/lower boiling point)
whats the difference/similarities in position isomerism different functional group position same functional group same carbon skeleton similar chemical properties slightly different physical properties
whats the difference/similarities in functional group isomersim different functional group different chemical properties different physical properties
what is the notation for geometrical isomerism and what do they each mean and when do use them cis (Z)- priority groups on same side of C double bond trans(E)-priority groups on opposite sides of C double bond use cis/trans when 2 H and 2 other use Z/E otherwise
what is an optical isomerism mirror image
name three functional group isomerisms alcohols (R-OH) and ethers (R-O-R) aldehydes (R-CHO) and ketones (R-CO-R) carboxylic acids (R-COOH) and esthers (R-COOR)
what is the priority scale in geometric isomerism C2H5> CH3> H + I> Br> Cl> F> C> H
when can you not have a geometrical isomerism when you have two similar atoms/groups attached to one end of a C double bond
what are the two different forms of optical isomerisms called optical isomers or enantiomers
when do optical isomerisms occur when they have a chiral centre that contains an asymmetric carbon with 4 different groups arranged tetrahedrally around it
what is fission breaking of a covalent bond
what is hetrolytic fission fission that forms unidentical ions (positive(electron deficient) one negative(electron rich))
what is homolytic fission fission that forms two free radicals each one with one unpaired electron
what does a curly arrow represent movement of of electrons
what does a single and double headed arrow represent single-one electron double-pair of electrons
what is a carbocation positive ion with positive charge on C
what is addition reaction reaction where a molecule joins to an unsaturated molecule to produce a saturated molecule
what is substitution reaction reaction where an atom/group replace another atom/group
what is elimination reaction reaction where a molecule is lost from a saturated molecule to form an unsaturated molecule
what bond is in alkanes and how does it form sigma bond formed by a direct overlap of S orbitals
what is the general lack of reactivity in alkanes owed to C-C and C-H bonds are very strong C-C bond is non polar + C and H have very similar electronegativity so non polar
whats the formula for complete combustion for alkanes CxHy +(x+y/4)O2= xCO2 +y/2H2O
what two possible products (not H2O) form from incomplete combustion of alkanes Co and C
what factors affect boiling points in alkanes and why chain length-longer=more contact points= more LF branching-less=more contact points=more LF
what are the conditions for reactions with alkanes and halogens UV light
what is the mechanism for reaction with alkanes and halogens (and what the reaction called) mechanism= free radical substitution reaction= halogenation
what the initiation in alkane halogenation homolytic fission e.g Br-Br= Br. +Br.
whats the propagation stage in alkane halogenation e.g Br. attacks CH4 = CH4 + Br.= CH3. +HBr then CH3.+ Br2= CH3Br +Br.
whats the termination for alkane halogenation Br. +Br.= Br2 CH3. +CH3.= C2H6 CH3. + Br.= CH3Br
why is free radical substitution not ideal in haloalkane synthesis because of possibility of further substitution to produce a mixture of products
what is the process that changes a long chain alkane into shorter alkane + unsaturated hydrocarbon and what are the conditions required cracking and 450 degrees +zeolite catalyst
what is the process that changes straight chain alkane into branched isomerisation
what is the process that changes straight chain alkane into a cycloalkane reforming
what is the spacial arrangement around the the C double bond in alkenes planar at 120 degrees
why is the process of promotion favourable the arrangement of 4 unpaired electrons with less repulsion is more stable than 2 paired and 2 unpaired
what is the hybridisation of alkanes combining the 2s and 2p3 orbitals to give 4 new orbitals that are equivalent (sp3) with irregular shape
what is the hybridisation of alkenes combining 2s and 2p2 to give 3 new orbitals (sp2) that are equivalent the remaining 2p orbital is unchanged and remains dumbell
what is the arrangement of sp3 orbitals in alkanes and why tetrahedral because they repel equally
how do the sp2 and 2p orbitals arrange themselves in alkenes the sp2 orbitals repel in planar arrangement and 2p lies at right angles to them
how are covalent bonds formed by overlap of orbitals
in alkenes how is the sigma bond formed by an overlap in an sp2 orbital from each C
how is the pi bond formed in alkenes and what is the strongest bond form the overlap of the 2 2p orbitals and the maximum overlap is when the 2p orbitals are in line (which gives rise to the planar arrangement)
which bond breaks first in alkenes the pi bond as sigma is stronger
factors affecting boiling point in alkenes and why chain length-longer =high as more points of contact branching-less=higher as more points of contact
whats the pattern for melting point in alkenes general increase with molecular mass
what are alkenes immiscible with and miscible with immiscible with water because non polar but miscible with most organic solvents
what is the main reaction of alkenes addition
what species are alkenes attracted to because of the extra electron density in the C double bond electrophiles
what is a nucleophile a species that is electron rich
what are the conditions for electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes room temp +reagent= hydrogen bromide
what is step one in the electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes as HBr nears alkene the C=C bond breaks and electrons attach to the positive H, the HBr breaks heterolytically to form bromide ion
what is step 2 in the electrophilic addition of hydrogen bromide to alkenes the bromide ion acts as a nucleophile and attacks carbocation
why is it surprising bromine acts as a electrophile in the electrophile addition of bromine because it non polar
how can bromine act as an electrophile in addition as it approaches the alkene electrons in the pi bond repel the electrons in the Br-Br bond inducing a dipole
what is the test for unsaturated hydrocarbons add bromine and shake if goes clear then it was unsaturated
what are the conditions for the electrophilic additionof sulphuric acid 0 degrees
what is the order of stability in carbocations methyl< primary (attched to 1C)< secondary (attached to 2C)< tertiary (attached to 3C)
which path in addition to unsymmetrical alkenes produces the major product the most stable one
what is the reagent and the conditions of hydration in alkenes steam and 60ATM +300 degrees and an phosphoric acid catalyst
what is hydration of alkenes used for ethanol manufacture
what is the reagent and the conditions for hydrogenation of alkenes hydrogen and 150 degrees + finely divided nickel catalyst
what is hydrogenation used for margarine manufacture
what happens during polymerisation alkene undergoes an addition reaction with itself
what does the equation of a polymerisation show the original monomer and the repeating unit
what polymers do these monomers make; ethene propene cholroethene tetraflouroethene poly(ethene) poly(propene) poly(cholroethene) or polyvinylchloride (pvc) poly(tetrafluoroethene) or PTFE (teflon)
what are the conditions for polymerisation high pressure +temp and either an organic peroxide or Ziegler-Natta (based ob TiCl4) catalyst
what do the physical properties of polymers depend on conditions used to create them
what do the chemical properties of polymers depend on the functional group e.g polythene is resistant to chemical attack and non biodegradable (it is just a large alkane)
why is it hard to dispose of polymers they are biodegradable and and unreactive with most chemicals
what is the problem with recycling polymers expensive
what are the advantages of burning polymers saves on landfill +produce energy
how does a feedstock work uses waste of organic compounds to convert into hydrocarbons to then convert into polymers
what reagent and conditions does the elimination from halogenoalkanes use alcoholic sodium hydroxide and reflux in alcoholic solution
what reagent and conditions does the dehydration from alcohols use conc. sulfuric acid or phosphoric acid and reflux
Created by: amberhughesswim