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Essentials - Unit 2

must know!! polyatomics, solubitliy rules, oxidation numbers, etc

OH- Hydroxide
CN- Cyanide
NO3- Nitrate
NO2- Nitrite
MnO4- Permanganete
ClO3- Chlorate
ClO4- Perchlorate
CH3COO- Acetate
(SO4)2- Sulfate
(SO3)2- Sulfite
(CrO4)2- Chromate
(CO3)2- Carbonate
(PO4)3- Phosphate
(NH4)+1 Ammonium
What are the 5 strong bases? LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ca(Oh)2, Ba(Oh)2
Lithium hydroxide (LiOH) is a __ strong base
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) is a __ strong base
Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(Oh)2 strong base
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) strong base
Barium Hydroxide - Ba(Oh)2 strong base
What are the 6 strong acids? HCl, HI, HBr, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
Which strong acid is HCl Hydrochloric Acid
Which strong acid is HBr Hydrobromic Acid
Which strong acid is HI Hydroiodic Acid
Which strong acid is H2SO4 Sulfuric Acid
Which strong acid is HNO3 Nitric Acid
Which strong acid is HClO4 Perchloric Acid
What elements are always soluble? Group 1A cations Perchlorates (ClO4)- Nitrates (NO3)- Acetates (Ch3COO)- Ammonium (NH4)+
Chlorides (Cl-), Bromides (Br-) & Iodides (I-) are always soluble EXCEPT when paired with: Mercury (Hg), Silver (Ag), Lead (Pb)
Sulfates (SO4)2- are always soluble EXCEPT when paired with: Silver (Ag) Mercury (Hg) Lead (Pb) Calcium (Ca) Barium (Ba) Strontium (Sr)
Phosphates and Carbonates are always INsoluble EXCEPT when paired with: Group 1 cations and NH4+
Hydroxides (OH-) & Sulfites (SO3 2-) are always INsoluble EXCEPT when paired with: Group 1 cations NH4+ Strontium (Sr) Barium (Ba)
What is the order you assign oxidation numbers? 1. Single elemental atoms 2. Ions (including polyatomics) 3. Fluorine 4. Alkali Metals 5. Alkaline Earth Metals 6. Hydrogen 7. Oxygen 8. Alumnium
What is the oxidation number of Single elemental atoms? 0
What is the oxidation number of Ions? Charge of that ion
What is the oxidation number of Alkali metals? +1
What is the oxidation number of Alkaline earth metals? +2
What is the oxidation number of Fluorine? -1
What is the oxidation number of Hydrogen? +1
What is the oxidation number of Oxygen? -2
What is the oxidation number of Alumnium? +1
When does Hydrogen not have +1 charge? When with a nonmetal (-1)
Atm measures.. pressure
1 atm = 760mmHg
The pressure of gas can be increased by: increasing temperature of gas & increasing amount of gas in a container (or changing size of container)
The Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT
What is STP? Standard Temperature Pressure (273K) , (1atm)
Oxidation is the ___ of electrons loss
Reduction is the __ of electrons gain
If you've been oxidized, you are the ___ agent reducing
If you've been reduced, you are the ___ agent oxidizing
When you lose electrons this is the on the ___ side product
When you gain electrons, this is on the ___ side reactant
The ___ is the charge assigned to each atom in the redox reaction oxidation number
A ___ reaction is the transfer of electrons. One species is oxidized, another is reduced redox
When you lose electrons, the charge becomes more __ positive
When you gain electrons, the charge becomes more ___ negative
What kind of reaction is this? Acid+base --->salt + H2O. Acid-Base
Salt(aq) + Salt(aq) ---> new salt(aq) + new salt (s) Precipitation
In a precipitation reaction, one of the products MUST be: insouluble
In a redox reaction, the oxidation numbers of elements change
A combustion reaction is any reaction where ___ carbon dioxide and water forms
Precipitate means __ solution does not break up (insoluble)
Partial pressure is (mole fraction)(total pressure)
Total pressure is just the ___ partial pressures added together
Mole fraction: moles of gas/total moles
The higher the molar mass, the ___ the effusion rate lower
Density increases as molar mass ___ increase
Lower the molar mass, the ___ the speed faster
time is directly proprtional to : molar mass
Boyles Law states: when volume goes up, pressure goes down and vice versa.
In Boyles Law, at constant temperature volume and pressure are __ inversely proprtional
Charles Law states that at constant temperature: volume and temperature are directly proportional (V=T)
Avogadro;s Law states: if my volume is increasing, its because my moles is increasing V=n
We use effusion: when comparing speed/velocity of multiple gases
Effusion is a.k.a. speed
The less you weigh, the ___ you move faster
3 assumptions for kinetic molecular theory: 1. must be very small compared to total volume 2.average kinetic energy is influenced by the temperature 3.must be completely elastic
What does it mean to be elastic? Gas particles bounce off ot other gas particles, they do not stick
When you lose electrons you are becoming more __ positive
When you gain electrons, you are becoming more __ negative
When you go through oxidation, you are the __ reducing agent
When you go through reduction, you are the __ oxidizing agent
Created by: Mariahj25



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