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# Ch. 5 Key Terms

### Chapter 5 Security Terms

Term | Definition |
---|---|

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) | A symmetric cipher that was approved by the NIST in late 2000 as a replacement for DES. |

Algorithm | Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys. |

Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm | Cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys. |

Block cipher | A cipher that manipulates an entire block of plaintext at one time. |

Blowfish | A block cipher that operates on 64-bit blocks and can have a key length from 32 to 448 bits. |

Ciphertext | Data that has been encrypted |

Cleartext | Unencrypted data |

Cryptography | The science of transforming information into a secure form so that unauthorized persons cannot access it |

Data encryption standard (DES) | A symmetric block cipher that uses a 56-bit key and encrypts data in 64-bit blocks |

Decryption | The process of changing cipher text into plaintext |

Diffie-Hellman (DH) | A Diffie-Hellman key exchange that uses different keys |

Diffie-Hellman Enphermeral | A diffie hellman key exchange that uses different keys |

digest | the unique digital fingerprint created by a one way hash algorithm |

digital signature | an electronic verification of the sender |

elliptic curve cryptography | an algorithm that uses elliptic curves instead of prime numbers to compute keys |

elliptic curve diffie hellman | a diffie hellman key exchange that uses elliptic curve cryptography instead of prime numbers in its computation |

encryption | the process of changing plaintext into ciphertext |

encryption | the process of changing plaintext into ciphertext |

ephemeral key | a temporary key that is used only once before it is discarded |

gnu privacy guard | free and open source software that is commonly used to encrypt and decrypt data |

hard ware security module | a secure cryptographic processor |

hash | an algorithm that creates a unique digital fingerprint |

hashed message authentication code | a hash function that is applied to both the key and the message |

in band | exchanging secure information within normal communication channels |

key | a mathematical value entered into a cryptographic algorithm to produce encrypted data |

key exchange | the process of sending and receiving secure cryptographic keys |

message digest | a common hash algorithm with several different versions |

message digest 5 | the current version of md |

non reputation | the process of proving that a user performed and action |

one time pad | combining plaintext with a random key to create cipher text that cannot be broken mathematically |

out of band | exchanging secure information outside the normal communication channels |

perfect forward securitty | public key system that generate random public keys that are different for each session |

plaintext | cleartext data that is to be encrypted and decrypted by a cryptographic |

pretty good privacy | a commercial product that is commonly used to encrypt files and messages |

private key | an asymmetric encryption key that does have to be protected |

private key cryptography | cryptographic algorithms that use a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message |

public key | an asymmetric encryption key that does not have to be protected |

public key cryptography | cryptography that uses two mathematically related keys |

quantum cryptography | a type of asymmetric cryptography that attempts to use the unusual and unique behavior of microscopic objects to enable users to securely develop and share keys |

race integrity primitives evaluation message digest | a hash algorithm that uses two different and independent parallel chains of computation and then combines the result at the end of the process |

rc4 | an rc stream cipher that will accept keys up to 128 bits in length |

rsa | the most common asymmetric cryptography algorithm |

secure hash algorithm | a secure hash algorithm that creates |

sponge function | a cryptographic function that applies a process on the input that has been padded with additional characters until all characters are used |

steganography | hiding the existence of data within another type of file |

stream cipher | an algorithm that takes one character and replaces it with one character |

symmetric cryptographic algorithm | encryption that uses a single key to encrypt and decrypt a message |

triple data encryption standard | a symmetric cipher that was designed to replace des |

trusted platform module | a chip on the motherboard of the computer that provides cryptographic services |

twofish | a derivation of the blowfish algorithm that is considered to be strong |

whole disk encryption | cryptography that can be applied to entire disks |