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Voltaire Never stopped fighting for tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and freedom of speech
John Locke Argued that the purpose of government is to protect thenatural rights of people, and if the government fails to protect these natural rights, citizens have the right to overthrow it.
Montesquieu In his famous book "On the Spirit of the Laws", he proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of a government.
Thomas Hobbes Argued that strong governments are necessary to control human behavior. To avoid chaos, he said, people enter into a social contract.
Mary Wollstonecraft In "A Vindication of the Rights of Women", this political thinker presented an argument for the education of women.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Most famous of the new philosophes of the 1760s, In "The Social Contract" he explained that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will.
Catherine the Great Ruled Russia as an enlightened despot and was an intelligent and dedicated ruler.
Frederick the Great Ruled Prussia as an enlightened despot. He was a very educated, cultured, and dedicated ruler.
Joseph II He is considered the only truly enlightened despot.
Maria Theresa Ruled Austria as an enlightened despot. She preserved her empire by winning the support of her people. She was a highly intelligent and educated ruler.
Philip II of Spain defended Roman Catholicism and helped stimulate the arts.
absolute rule Divine right was used to support what concept?
boyars Group who suffered the greatest loss of power during the reign of Ivan the Terrible.
constitutional monarchy By the end of the 1600s, England's system of government had become this.
William and Mary Brought to the throne of England by the Glorious Revolution
Maria Theresa Inherited the Austrian throne only after Charles VI had the other European powers sign an agreement declaring they would recognize the heir.
Thirty Years' War Sparked by religious conflict and resulted in the increased power of France, the weakening of Spain and Austria, and the devastation of Germany
the monarchy, as an institution "Restored" to power by the Restoration in England
Edict of Nantes Issued in an effort to bring an end to violent religious conflicts in France
republic After the northern Dutch gained their freedom from Spain, the United Provinces of the Netherlands established this type of government.
absolute monarchs European monarchs became these in response to religious and territorial conflicts that caused warfare and revolts.
St. Petersburg Established because Peter the Great wanted a city on a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West.
Louis XIV Became France's most powerful ruler, and boasted, "I am the state"
religious differences The main cause of the eight civil wars that were fought in France between 1562 and 1598.
War of the Spanish Succession Charles II made Louis XIV's grandson his heir, adding to Bourbon power, and leading to the _____
Cardinal Richelieu Worked to increase the power of the Bourbon monarchy by moving against the Huguenots, and weakening the power of the nobles.
Spanish Empire Weakened partially because of a period of severe inflation and heavy taxes.
economy The ______ of central Europe differed from that of western Europe because serfs in central Europe did not move to cities and become the middle class
westernize Russia Peter the Great was the first ruler to attempt to ______________.
Frederick the Great Believed a ruler should be a father to his people.
Thirty Years' War Which war resulted in the beginning of the modern state system in Europe?
Puritans They finally won the English Civil War when Cromwell's army defeated the Royalists, and they held the king prisoner.
Ivan IV One of the reasons he was called "the Terrible" was because he organized a police force that murdered people he considered traitors.
English Bill of Rights It made clear the limits of royal power.
Thirty Years' War It was a conflict over religion, territory, and power among European ruling families.
philosophes Believed in progress for society
The Social Contract The idea of a direct democracy is explained in Rousseau's _________________.
proposal on reforms to Russia's laws The philosophes influenced Catherine the Great's _________________.
Scientific Revolution Improvements in medicine and scientific instruments were caused by what?
Enlightenment What promoted a belief in progress, a more secular outlook, and faith in science?
absolute authority Both Catherine the Great and Thomas Hobbes believed that a monarch should have what?
Created by: harmona71