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Science Ch3

Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures

Pure Substance A sample of matter that has definite chemical and physical properties.
Element A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.
Atom The smallest unit of an element that maintains the characteristics of that element.
Molecules A unit of matter composed of two or more atoms that are joined together by chemical bonds. They may be from the same element or from different elements.
Compounds Pure substances that are chemically bonded.
Mixtures A combination of two or more pure substances that are not chemically bonded.
What are the two types of mixtures? Heterogeneous and Homogeneous mixtures
Homogeneous Molecules are mixed up in an even distribution
Solutions A substance that appears to be a single substance. In a solution, particles do not scatter light.
Solvent The substance that does the dissolving.
Solute The substance being dissolved.
Colloids A mixture of tiny particles that are bigger than those in the solution, but smaller than those in a suspension.
Heterogeneous Molecules are mixed up in an uneven distribution.
Suspensions A mixture in which the particles are dispersed in a liquid or a gas, and will eventually settle out.
Alloy A solid solution that is formed when a metal or a nonmetal is dissolved in a metal
Is hydrogen a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid? Nonmetal
What are the three ways to dissolve solids faster? Mixing, Heating, and Crushing
Metalloids These share characteristic properties of metals and nonmetals. Also known as semi-conductors of heat and electricity.
Nonmetals Dull, bad conductors of heat and electricity, unmalleable, and solids tend to be brittle.
Metals An element that is shiny and that conducts heat and electricity well.
What increases the solubility of a gas in a liquid? Decreasing the temperature of the liquid
Which of the following best describes chicken noodle soup? A. element C. compound B. mixture D. solution B. Mixture
A solution that contains a large amount of solute is best described as: A. insoluble. C. dilute. B. concentrated. D. weak. B. Concentrated
Which of the following would not increase the rate at which a solid dissolves? A. decreasing the temperature B. crushing the solid C. stirring D. increasing the temperature A.decreasing the temperature
What is the difference between an element and a compound? An element is a substance that has been simplified. A compound can be broken down by chemical means. The atoms of an element maintain that element's properties.
How many grams of sugar must be dissolved in 150 ml of water to make a solution that has a concentration of 0.6 g/ml? 0.25 g/mL
To keep the “fizz” in carbonated beverages after they have been opened, should you store them in a refrigerator or in a cabinet? A refrigerator
A light green powder is heated in a test tube. A gas is given off, and the solid becomes black. In which classification of matter does the green powder belong? Explain your reasoning. The green powder belongs in the nonmetals category because this powder is dull, not shiny.
Created by: varsha02