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Ch. 4 Key Terms

Chapter 4 Security Key Terms

Access list A paper or electronic record of individuals who have permission to enter a secure area, the time that they entered, and the time they left the area.
Activity phase controls Subtypes of security controls, classified as deterrent, preventive, detective, compensation, or corrective.
Administrative control Process for developing and ensuring that policies and procedures are carried out, specifying actions that users may do, must do, or cannot do.
Alarm An audible sound to warn a guard of an intruder.
Antispyware Software that helps prevent computers from becoming infected by different types of spyware.
Barricade A structure designed to block the passage of traffic.
Bayesian filtering Spam filtering software that analyzes every word in an email and determines how frequently a word occurs in order to determine if it is spam.
Cable lock A device that can be inserted into the security slot of a portable device and rotated so that the cable lock is secured to the device to prevent it from being stolen.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) Using video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific and limited set of receivers used for surveillance in areas that require security monitoring.
Cross-site request forgery (XSRF) An attack that uses the user's Web browser settings to impersonate the user.
Data loss prevention (DLP) A system that can identify critical data, monitor how it is being accessed, and protect it from unauthorized users.
Deadbolt lock A door lock that extends a solid metal bar into the door frame for extra security.
Errors (exceptions) Faults in a program that occur while the application is running.
Fencing Securing a restricted area by erecting a barrier.
Firewall (packet filter) Hardware or software that is designed to prevent malicious packets from entering or leaving computers.
Fuzz testing (fuzzing) A software testing technique that deliberately provides invalid, unexpected, or random data as inputs to a computer program.
GPS tracking Using the Global Positioning System (GPS) to detect the location of a portable device.
Heuristic detection Creating a virtualized environment to simulate the central processing unit (CPU) and memory of the computer to check for the presence of a virus.
Host-based software firewall A firewall that runs as a program on a local system to protect it against attacks.
Hotfix Software that addresses a specific customer situation and often may not be distributed outside that customer's organization.
Input validation Verifying a user's input to an application.
Locking cabinet A secure storage unit that can be used for storing portable devices.
Log A record of events that occur.
Mantrap A device that monitors and controls two interlocking doors to a small room (a vestibule), designed to separate secure and nonsecure areas.
Patch A general software security update intended to cover vulnerabilities that have been discovered.
Pop-up blocker Either a program or a feature incorporated within a browser that stops pop-up advertisements from appearing.
Proximity reader A device that detects an emitted signal in order to identify the owner.
Remote wipe/sanitation A technology that can remotely erase data from a portable device and reset it to its default factory settings.
Safe A ruggedized steel box with a lock.
Security logs Logs that are considered the primary source of log data.
Security policy A document or series of documents that clearly defines the defense mechanisms an organization will employ to keep information secure.
Service pack Software that is a cumulative package of all security updates plus additional features.
Signature file A sequence of bytes (a string) found in the virus as a virus signature.
Voice encryption
Created by: BWallace9311