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# Geometry

Altitude of a triangle A straight line through a vertex and perpendicular to (i.e. forming a right angle with) a line containing the base (the opposite side) of a triangle
Angle bisector theorem Concerned with the relative lengths of the two segments that a triangle's side is divided into by a line that bisects the opposite angle. It equates their relative lengths to the relative lengths of the other two sides of the triangle.
Arc A closed segment (symbol: ⌒) of a differentiable curve in the two-dimensional plane
Area Any particular extent of space or surface. A=L*W (Always write area in #measure squared).
Center of a polygon In a rotation, the point that does not move. The rest of the plane rotates around this one fixed point.
Centroid of a triangle The point where the three medians of the triangle intersect
Circumcenter of a triangle The point where the three perpendicular bisectors of a triangle meet
Circumference (circles) A complete circular arc; also the distance around the outside of a circle. C=Pi*r(r).
Circumscribed A geometric figure that is drawn around another geometric figure so as to touch all its vertices
Combination A way of selecting several things out of a larger group, where (unlike permutations) order does not matter.
Compass An instrument for drawing circles and arcs and measuring distances between points, consisting of two arms linked by a movable joint.
Composition The combining of distinct parts or elements to form a whole
Compound event An event whose probability of occurrence depends upon the probability of occurrence of two or more independent events
Compression To reduce a shape in size while retaining proportions
Conditional probability The probability that an event will occur, when another event is known to occur or to have occurred
Conditional probability formula The conditional probability of A given B is denoted by P(A|B) and defined by the formula P(A|B) = P(AB) P(B), provided P(B) > 0.
Dependent events When the outcome of one event affects the outcome of another.
Dilation A transformation that grows or shrinks a polygon by a given proportion about a center point
Events A set of outcomes of an experiment (a subset of the sample space) to which a probability is assigned
Experimental probability The ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials
Frequency table Lists items and uses tally marks to record and show the number of times they occur
Fundamental counting principle When there are m ways to do one thing, and n ways to do another, then there are m×n ways of doing both.
Glide reflection A transformation in which a graph or geometric figure is picked up and moved to another location without any change in size or orientation
Glide reflectional symmetry The symmetry that a figure has if it can be made to fit exactly onto the original when it is translated a given distance at a given direction and then reflected over a line.
Hypotenuse-leg theorem (HL theorem) If the hypotenuse and leg of a right triangle are congruent to the hypotenuse and leg of another right triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
Image An optically formed duplicate, counterpart, or other representative reproduction of an object, especially an optical reproduction formed by a lens or mirror
Incenter of a triangle The point where the three angle bisectors of a triangle meet
Included angle The angle made by two lines with a common vertex
Independent events When the outcome of one event does not influence the outcome of thesecond event
Inscribed in (the triangle) Drawing one shape inside a triangle so that it just touches the sides of the triangle
Intersection The probability that events A and B both will occur
Isometry A transformation that is invariant with respect to distance. That is, the distance between any two points in the pre-image must be the same as the distance between the images of the two points.
Median of a triangle A line segment joining a vertex of a triangle to the midpoint of the opposing side
Midsegment of a triangle The segment joining the midpoints of two sides of a triangle
Mutually exclusive events Two events that cannot occur at the same time
n factorial The factorial of a natural number n is the product of the positive integers less than or equal to n.
Non-included angle The side of a triangle that is not included by two given angles
Ordered triple Three numbers written in the form (x, y, z)
n-tuple n numbers written in the form (x1, x2, x3, . . . , xn)
Orthocenter of a triangle The point where the three altitudes of a triangle intersect
Overlap Similar triangles in which one triangle is on top of (overlapping) another triangle
Permutation All possible arrangements of a collection of things, where the order is important
Point of symmetry A special center point for certain kinds of symmetric figures or graphs. If a figure or graph can be rotated 180° about a point P and end up looking identical to the original, then P is a point of symmetry.
Polygon angle-sum theorem, corollary The measure of each interior angle of a regular n-gon is 180*(n–2)/n)
Polygon exterior angle-sum theorem If a polygon is convex, then the sum of the measures of the exterior angles, one at each vertex, is 360.
Preimage The original figure prior to a transformation.
Probability distribution A graph, table, or formula that gives the probability for each value of the random variable
Probability formula The number of ways an event can occur divided by the total number of possible outcomes
Relative frequency The ratio of the actual number of favorable events to the total possible
Remote interior angles The two angles of a triangle that are not adjacent to the exterior angle, which is drawn by extending one of the sides.
Rigid motion The variance in position and orientation when a rigid body moves
Sample space In probability theory, the set of all possible outcomes or results of an experiment
Tessellation A plane with identically shaped pieces that do not overlap or leave blank spaces. The pieces do not have to be oriented identically. A tessellation may use tiles of one, two, three, or any finite number of shapes.
Theoretical probability The likelihood of an event happening based on all the possible outcomes
Transformation Operations that alter the form of a figure. The standard transformations are translations, reflections, dilations (stretches), compressions (contractions or shrinks), and rotations.
Tree diagram A representation of a tree structure in which the probability of each branch is written on the branch and the outcome is written at the end of the branch
Volume (prisms, cylinders, pyramids, cones, spheres) The total amount of space enclosed in a solid. (Always write volume in #measure cubed).
Created by: hayleysmith00

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