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# Statistics

### Interpreting and Utilizing Clinical Statistics

T:FA pooly designed study can not be statistically evaluated False. It can be evaluated
T:F, A poorly appied statistical test can never be evaluated True.
What type of statistics makes an assumption from a sample to a population Inferential Statistics
What type of stats summarizes the essential characteristics of a data set Descriptive
P-value and Confidence interval are used in what type of statistics Inferential
What are 2 examples of measurements that descriptive stats evaluates central tendency and variability
Average for a set of numbers mean
middlemost value ina set of ranked data median
most frequently occuring number in a data set mode
What are 3 measures of variability and be able to describe all 3 (page 16 of notes) range, standard deviation, standard error of the mean (SEM)
What measure of variability relates the sample to the population SEM
Does hypothesis testing establish "causality?" yes
Does hypothesis testing establish certainty? No
T:F, Causality and certainty are synonomous False
What does the null hypothesis state? That the treatment being evaluated has no affect on the outcome of interest
What type of error is described by "A false positive" Type 1
What is a type 2 error when you fasly conclude that there is no difference when in fact there really is. false negative
What type of error is seen when you reject the null when you really should have accepted it type 1
What is alpha Risk of experiencing a type 1 error. it is the risk we are willing to take that we will find a chance result to be significant
What is usually the accepted alpha value 5%
T:F, alpha needs to be established a priori, however beta does not have to be established a priori Flase. Both need to be established a priori
What is the risk we take at making a type 1 error alpha
What is the risk of making a type 2 error Beta
How would you calculate Beta 1- power
What is usually the normal designation for a value of beta 20 %
T:F, Hypothesis testing establishes whether the outcome of interest is due to chance alone or another factor true
What is another name for hpothesis of no difference null hypothesis
What are two ways to increase power increase alpha (significance level) or increase sample size OR make assumptions (specifically one sided assumptions) or reduce variability)
Which type of tailed test accounts for the possibility that the drug will be inferior to the control 2 sided test
What's one example of a downfall of a one-sided test it only tests a benefit from a certain study, but does not relay information on a downfalls. Eg. a drug is beneficial will be seen, however it if is harmful it will not be seen
LDL cholesteril is an example of what kind of measurement continuous
In a normal distribution what are the percentages of information found within 1, 2, and 3 standard deviations 1 SD- 68.3%, 2 SD- 95.5%, 3SD- 99.7%
What is the mean and SD in a normal distribution? mean = 0, SD = 1
T:F, the central limit theorem states that as the sample size decreases and becomes sufficiently large, the distribution of the sample means tend toward normal distribution False. This will happen as the sample size INCREASES
If a study were to be conducted on whether placeo or drug A was better. A sample of 20 people were randomly assined. Results were p<.005 and confidence interval was 95%. Could you conclude that the values were normally distributed? NO. normal distribution is determined by sample size. there has to be a sample size of at least 30 to be normally distributed
What is the difference between parametric and nonparametric? parametric = normall distributed, continuous data. Nonparametric = not nor. dist., nominal data or ordinal data
What is the probability of the observed result or a more extreme result occurring by chance alone p-value
the p-value is the risk of experiencing what type of error, a fale positive or a fale negative? false positive
How would you interpret a p<.05. What does ttha mean? How would you describe that value in words? It means that there is a less than 5% chance that what we observed was due to chance alone.
If the p-value is to high, what should we do to the null hypothesis you have insufficient evidence to reject the null = accept the null hypothesis
T:F, The p-value is an important tool in determing clinical significance FALSE! The p-value infers nothing about clinical significance! It relates to statistical significance!
Is the p-calue determined post-hoc or a priori post hoc
T:F, the smaller the sample size the more narrow the CI FaLSE, the larger the sample size the more narrow the confidence interval
Do you want the CI to be small or large small
What value gives you statistical significance p-value
what value gives you clinical significance CI
What is the equation used to determine relative risk reduction? (High - low)/ high
What is the equation for absolute risk reduction? hi-low
what is the equation for number needed to treat 1/absolute risk reduction
What is the relative risk reduction? the reduction of risk from 1 therapy to anoter.
what is the aboslute risk reduction absolute differences between the probabilities of the treatment even rate and control even rate
How would you define NNT the number if subjects needed to treat over a period of time in order to see the benefits of a therapy in 1 subject
Which one of the following is used to make clinical decisions, NNT, ARR, RRR. NNT
What does the number needed to harm mean the number needed to treat before you experience one adverse reaction
What is the equation for NNH 1-ARR
What is the relationship between sample size and the ability to detect a difference? Smaller sample sizes detect a large difference. large sample sizes detect small differences
Created by: ajasmine