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Ch6 - Lec 5 (part 1)

Physiology - Vander's - Chapter 6 - Neurophysiology

opposites Work must be performed to keep ___ apart.
sodium, chloride The predominant solutes in the extracellular fluid are ___(Na) and ___(Cl-) ions.
potassium The intracellular fluid contains high concentrations of ___ (K) ions and ionized nondiffusible molecules, particularly proteins with negatively charged side chains and phosphate compounds.
electrical potential Separated electrical charges of opposite sign have the potential to do work if they are allowed to come together. This potential is called ___ ___.
potential difference It is determined by the difference in the amount of charge between two points....called ___ ___
Na+, K+, intracellular Membrane potential is due to differences in the distribution and membrane permeability of __+, __+, and large ___ ions.
+, - All living cells have slight excess of (__) on the outside and (__) on the inside
excitable tissue This type of tissue has the ability to produce rapid changes in their membrane potential when excited
nerve, muscle Excitable tissue is mostly made up of ___ and ___ cells.
excited Resting membrane potential - cells are not ___ (at rest)
electrical The membrane potential describes the ___ difference between the fluid inside the cell and the fluid outside the cell.
Na+, K+ The ___ / ___ pump maintains a concentration difference of these two inside and outside the cell at the expense of energy.
energy The Na+/ K+ pump maintains a concentration difference of these two inside and outside the cell at the expense of ___.
inside Large, negatively charged (anionic) proteins can't pass through the membrane so are only ___ (inside or outside) the cell (synthesized by amino acids).
leak In addition to the Na+ / K+ pump, these two ions can also pass through protein channels specific for them (called ___ channels)
K+ Most cells have more channels for ___+ to leak.
20 The Na+/K+ pump accounts for __% of the total membrane potential.
potential The electrical potential difference is often referred to simpoy as the ____.
concentration gradient 80% of the total membrane potential is caused by the passive diffusion of K+ and Na+ down ____ ____
ion concentration Magnitude of resting potential is determined by two factors: 1) differences in specific ___ ___ in the ICF and ECF.
membrane permeabilities Magnitude of resting potential is determined by two factors: 2) differences in ___ ___ to the different ions (
membrane potential ___ ___ describes the electrical difference between the fluid inside the cell and the fluid outside the cell
resting membrane potential All cells under resting conditions have a potential difference across their plasma membranes, with the inside of the cell negatively charged with respect to the outside...called ___ ___ ___
inside, outside The resting membrane potential exists because of a tiny excess of negative ions ___ the cell and an excess of positive ions ___.
neutral With "resting membrane potential", the bulk of the intracellular and extracellular fluids remain ____.
sodium, potassium Which ions play the most important roles in generating the resting membrane potential? (there are two)
open If a membrane is permeable it means it has ___ channels.
equilibrium potential The electrical potential necessary to balance an ionic concentration gradient across a membrane so the net flux of that ion is zero (equal in magnitude but opposite in direction) is called __ __
net At the equilibrium potential for an ion, there is no ___ movement of the ion because the opposing fluxes are equal, and the potential will undergo no further change.
graded potentials ___ ___ are local changes in membrane potential that are confined to a realtively small region of the plasma membrane
graded, action Brief changes in the membrane potential from its resting level produce electrical signals. Such changes are the most important way that nerve cells process and transmit info. These signals occur in two forms: ___ potentials and ___ potentials.
graded ___ potentials are important in signaling over short distances
action ____ potentials are the long distance signals of nerve and muscle membranes.
resting The terms depolarize, repolarize, and hyperpolarize are used to describe the direction of changes in the membrrane potential relative to the ___ potential.
net The resting membrane potential, at -70mV, is polarized. "Polarized" simply means that the outside and inside of a cell have a different ___ charge.
depolarized The membrane is ___ when its potential becomes less negative (closer to zero) than the resting level.
repolarized When a membrane potential that has been depolarized returns toward the resting value, it is ___.
hyperpolarized The membrane is ____ when the potential is more negative than the resting level.
Created by: dakotadll