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Brett Security Ch. 3

Chapter 3 Key Terms

TermDefinition
ActiveX A set of rules for how applications under the Microsoft Windows operating system should share information.
ActiveX control A specific way of implementing ActiveX that runs through the web browser and functions like a miniature application.
add-on Program that provides additional functionality to web browsers. Also called extension.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Part of the TCP/IP protocol for determining the MAC address based on the IP address.
Arbitrary/remote code execution An attack that allows an attacker to run programs and execute commands on a different computer.
ARP Poisoning An attack that corrupts the ARP cache.
Attachment A file that is coupled to an email message and often carries malware.
Buffer overflow attack An attack that occurs when a process attempts to store data in RAM beyond the boundaries of a fixed-length storage buffer.
Client-side attack An attack that targets vulnerabilities in client applications that interact with a compromised server or process malicious data.
Command injection Injecting and executing commands to execute on a server.
Cookie A file on a local computer in which a web server stores user-specific information.
Cross-site scripting (XSS) An attack that injects scripts into a web application server to direct attacks at clients.
Denial of service (DoS) An attack that attempts to prevent a system from performing its normal functions by overwhelming the system with requests.
Directory traversal An attack that takes advantage of a vulnerability so that a user can move from the root directory to restricted directories.
Distributed denial of service (DDoS) An attack that uses many computers to perform a DoS attack.
DNS poisoning An attack that substitutes DNS addresses so that the computer is automatically redirected to an attacker’s device.
Domain Name System (DNS) A hierarchical name system for translating domain names to IP addresses.
Extension Another name for add-on.
First-party cookie A cookie that is created from the website currently being viewed.
Flash cookie Another name for locally shared object (LSO).
Host table A list of the mappings of host names to IP addresses.
HTTP header Part of HTTP that is comprised of fields that contain the different characteristics of the data that is being transmitted.
HTTP header manipulation Modifying HTTP headers to create an attack.
Integer overflow attack An attack that is the result of an attacker changing the value of a variable to something outside the range that the programmer had intended.
Locally shared object (LSO) A cookie that is significantly different in size and location from regular cookies, and can store more complex data. Also called Flash cookie.
Man-in-the-middle An attack that intercepts legitimate communication and forges a fictitious response to the sender.
Persistent cookie A cookie that is recorded on the hard drive of the computer and does not expire when the browser closes.
Ping A utility that sends an ICMP echo request message to a host.
Ping flood An attack that uses the Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) to flood a victim with packets.
Plug-in A third-party library that attaches to a web browser and can be embedded inside a webpage.
Privilege escalation An attack that exploits a vulnerability in software to gain access to resources that the user normally would be restricted from accessing.
Replay An attack that makes a copy of the transmission before sending it to the recipient.
Session cookie A cookie that is stored in Random Access Memory (RAM), instead of on the hard drive, and only lasts only for the duration of a visit to a website.
Session hijacking An attack in which an attacker attempts to impersonate the user by using the user’s session token.
Session Token A form of verification used when accessing a secure web application.
Smurf attack An attack that broadcasts a ping request to computers yet changes the address so that all responses are sent to the victim.
Spoofing Impersonating another computer or device.
SQL Injection An attack that targets SQL servers by injecting commands to be manipulated 3 by the database.
SYN flood attack An attack that takes advantage of the procedures for initiating a TCP/IP session.
Third-party cookie A cookie that was created by a third party that is different from the primary website.
XML (Executable markup language) A markup language that is designed to carry data, in contrast to HTML, which indicates how to display data.
XML Injection An attack that injects XML tags and data into a database.
Zero-day attack Attack that exploits previously unknown vulnerabilities, so victims have no time (zero days) to prepare for or defend against the attack.
Created by: BWallace9311
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