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Chemistry Chapter 10

Crystal Cathedral High School Sophomores Chapter 10 Vocabulary

Absolute Zero temperature at which a substance would have no kinetic energy (holds still); zero Kelvin
Amorphous Material materials with a definite shape and fixed volume
Boiling Point the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the pressure exerted on the surface of the liquid
Brownian Motion when molecules are in constant motion
Celsius the unit of temperature used in the metric system
Condensation phase change from gas to liquid (or solid)
Diffusion the process by which a gas enters a container and fills it, or when the particles of two gases or liquids mix together
Evaporation phase change from liquid to gas- particles escape the surface
Vaporization the energy absorbed when 1kg of a liquid vaporizes at its normal boiling point
Fahrenheit the unit of temperature
Freezing Point temperature at which a liquid begins to form its crystal lattice structure; if it continues to form, it will become a solid
Gas flowing, compressible matter with no definite volume or shape
Heat the energy transferred from an object at high temperature to an object at lower temperature
Heat of Fusion the energy released as 1kg of a substance solidifies at its freezing point
Heat of Vaporization the energy absorbed when 1kg of a liquid vaporizes at its normal boiling point
Ideal Gas a gas with particles in constant random motion that undergo elastic collisions and have no attraction to or away from each other
Joules the SI unit of energy
Kelvin the SI unit for temperature; the temperature scale defined so that temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles and so that zero on the scale corresponds to zero kinetic energy
Liquid flowing matter with definite volume but no definite shape
Liquid Crystals a material that loses its rigid organization in only one or two dimensions when it melts
Melting Point temperature at which the crystal lattice of a solid dissolves; if additional heat is provided, it will become a liquid
Plasma the most common form of matter in the universe, but the least common on Earth; ionized gas that can conduct electrical current, but is electrically neutral
Pressure the force acting on a unit area of a surface
Solid rigid matter with definite shape and volume; has arrangements of crystal lattices
Sublimation phase change from a solid to a gas, without passing through a liquid stage
Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in the material
Created by: dez(a)rey