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Radioactivity Definitions for LC

Radioactivity The spontaneous breaking up of unstable nuclei with the emission of one or more types of radiation
What happens when an atom loses an alpha particle? It changes into an atom of the element two places before it in the periodic table The mass number of the parent atom decreases by four
The half-life of an element is The time taken for half of the nuclei in any given sample to decay
When an atom loses a beta particle? It increases its atomic number by 1. The mass number stays the same.
Name an Alpha source Americium - 241
Name a Beta Source Carbon - 14
Name a Gamma Source Cobalt - 60
What is a Nuclear Reaction Its a process that alters the composition, structure or energy of an atomic nucleus
Polonium and Radium were discovered in 1898 by? Marie and Pierre Curie
The word "Radioactive" means? Giving off of Rays
An Alpha Particle consists of? Two protons and Two Neutrons stuck together
Alpha Particles Properties Slow Moving Low Penetrating Power - few cms of air or a sheet of paper
Beta Particle Properties Fast Moving Electrons Lighter than Alpha Particles More penetrating than Alpha Particles - 5 mm of Aluminium
Gamma Radiation Properties High Energy Electromagnetic Radiation similar to X - Rays travelling at the speed of light. Not deflected by Electric or magnetic fields Very High Penetrating ability. Only stopped by thick slab of Lead Cancer Causing. Can be used to kill cancer.
The changing of one element into another is known as? Transmutation
What is a Radioisotope A Radioactive Isotope
Radioisotope Medical Use Kills Cancerous Cells = Radiotherapy Sterilising medical instruments Iodine - 131 used to study Thyroid gland
Radioisotope Archaeological Use Used for Carbon dating using a ratio of C - 12 to C - 14 (Radiocarbon Dating)
Radioisotope Agricultural Use Measuring the uptake of Phosphorus by Plants using P - 32
Radioisotope Food Irradiation Use Kills disease carrying organisms. Herbs and Strawberries. Not suitable for all foods, e.g. Red Meat
Radioisotope Smoke Alarms Use Americium - 241 alpha particles are blocked by ash particles setting of
Backround Radiation Radiation in the environment coming from natural sources
Radiation was discovered by? Henri Becquerel
Who discovered Polonium and Radium? Marie and Pierre Curie
Created by: p-furl1