Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

unit four AP chem

unit four vocabulary for AP chemistry

energy capacity to do work or cause heat flow
law of conservation of energy energy can be converted from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed
potential energy energy due to position or composition
kinetic energy energy due to motion of an object. depends on mass of object and square of its velocity
heat energy transferred between two objects due to temperature differences between them
work force acting over a distance
pathway specific conditions for energy transfer
state function (property) property that is independent of the pathway
system in thermodynamics, part of the universe on which attention should be focused.
surroundings in thermodynamics, include everything the the universe except the system.
exothermic refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows out of the system
endothermic refers to a reaction where energy (as heat) flows into the system.
thermodynamics study of energy and its interconversions
first law of thermodynamics energy of the universe is constant- same as law of conservation of energy
internal energy property of a system that can be changed by a flow of work, heat or both.
enthalpy property of a system that is equal to E+PV change in enthalpy equals energy flow as heat
calorimeter insulated device that is used to measure amount of hat released or absorbed during a physical or chemical process.
calorimetry science of measuring heat flow
heat capacity amount of energy required to raise temperature of an object by 1 degree celsius
specific heat capacity amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1 gram of a given substance by 1 degree celsius
molar heat capacity amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1 mole of a given substance by 1 degree celsius
constant-pressure calorimetry used to detect change in enthalpy for reactions that occur in solutions
constant-volume calorimetry used to measure energy changes in reactions that occur where volume does not change.
Hess's Law in going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, enthalpy change is the same whether the reaction takes place in 1 step or in a series of steps. enthalpy is a state function.
standard enthalpy of formation enthalpy change that accompanies formation of 1 mole of a compound at 25 degrees C.
standard state referenced state for a specific substance defined according to a set of conventional definiton
spontaneous process physical or chemical change that occurs without outside intervention and may require energy to be supplied to begin the process
entropy thermodynamic function measures randomness or disorder
positional probabiltity type of probability that depends on the number of arrangements in space that yield a particular state
second law of thermodynamics spontaneous process there is always an increase in entropy of the universe.
free energy thermodynamics function equal to enthalpy minus product of entropy and the kelvin temperature.
third law of thermodynamics entropy of a perfect crystal at 0K is zero
standard free energy change change in free energy that will occur for 1 unit of reaction if reactants in standard state are converted to produces in their standard state.
standard free energy of formation change in free energy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of substance from its constituent elements with all reactants and products in their standard state.
equilibrium point (thermodynamic definition) position where free energy of a reaction system has its lowest possible value.
salt bridge U tube containing an electrolyte that connects 2 compartments of a galvanic cell allowing ion flow without extensive mixing of different solutions
porous disk disk in a tube connecting 2 different solutions in a galvanic cell allows ion flow without extensive mixing of solutions
galvanic cell device in which chemical energy from a spontaneous redox reaction is changed to electrical energy that can be used to do work
anode electrode in a galvanic cell at which oxidation occurs
cathode electrode in a galvanic cell at which reduction occurs
cell potential (electromotive force) driving force in galvanic cell that pulls electrons from reducing agent in 1 compartment to oxidizing agent in the other.
volt unit of electrical potential defined as 1 joule of work per coulomb of charge transferred.
voltmeter instrument that measures cell potential by drawing electric current through a known reisstance
potentiometer instrument that has a manually adjustable variable resistor with 3 terminals
concentration cell galvanic cell in which both compartments contain the same components but at different concentrations
Nernest equation equation relating potential of electrochemical cell to concentration of cell components.
glass electrode electrode for measuring pH from potential difference that develops when it is dipped into an aqueous solution containing H+ ions
ion-selective electrode an electrode that is sensitive to concentrations of a particular ion in solution
battery group of galvanic cells connected in series
lead storage battery battery (used in cars) in which the anode is lead, cathode is lead coated with a lead dioxide and electrolyte is sulfuric acid soltuion
dry cell battery common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and portable audio players.
fuel cell galvanic cell for which reactants are continuously supplied
corrosion process by which metals are oxidized in the atmosphere
galvanizing process by which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion
cathodic protection method on which an active metal, Mg, connceted to steel to protect it from corrosion
Created by: mrsklann