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Brett Security Ch. 2

Key Terms

TermDefinition
Adware A software program that delivers advertising content in a manner that is unexpected and unwanted by the user.
Armored virus A virus that goes to great lengths in order to avoid detection.
Backdoor Software code that gives access to a program or a service that circumvents normal security protections.
Bot herder An attacker who controls a botnet.
Command and control The structure by which a bot herder gives instructions to zombies in a botnet.
Computer virus Malicious computer code that, like its biological counterpart, reproduces itself on the same computer.
Dumpster diving The act of digging through trash receptacles to find information that can be useful in an attack.
Hoax A false warning designed to trick users into changing security settings on their computer.
Impersonation A social engineering attack that involves masquerading as a real or fictitious character and then playing out the role of that person on a victim.
Key logger Software or a hardware device that captures and stores each keystroke that a user types on the computer’s keyboard.
Logic bomb Computer code that lies dormant until it is triggered by a specific logical event.
Macro A series of instructions that can be grouped together as a single command, often used to automate a complex set of tasks or a repeated series of tasks.
Malware Software that enters a computer system without the user’s knowledge or consent and then performs an unwanted and usually harmful action.
Metamorphic malware Malware that rewrites its own code and thus appears different each time it is executed.
Oligomorphic malware Malware that changes its internal code to one of a set number of predefined mutations whenever it is executed.
Pharming A phishing attack that automatically redirects the user to a fake site.
Phishing Sending an email or displaying a web announcement that falsely claims to be from a legitimate enterprise in an attempt to trick the user into surrendering private information.
Polymorphic malware Malware code that completely changes from its original form whenever it is executed.
Program virus A computer virus that infects executable program files.
Ransomware Malware that prevents a user’s device from properly operating until a fee is paid.
Rootlet A set of software tools used by an attacker to hide the actions or presence of other types of malicious software.
Shoulder surfing Watching an authorized user enter a security code on a keypad.
Social engineering A means of gathering information for an attack by relying on the weaknesses of individuals.
Spam Unsolicited email.
Spear phishing A phishing attack that targets only specific users.
Slim A variation of spam, which targets instant messaging users instead of email users.
Spyware A general term used to describe software that spies on users by gathering information without consent.
Tailgating When an unauthorized individual enters a restricted-access building by following an authorized user.
Trojan horse An executable program that is advertised as performing one activity but which actually performs a malicious activity.
Typo squatting Redirecting a user to a fictitious website based on a misspelling of the URL. Also called URL hijacking.
URL hijacking Redirecting a user to a fictitious website based on a misspelling of the URL. Also called typo squatting.
Wishing A phishing attack uses telephone calls instead of emails.
Watering hole attack A malicious attack that is directed toward a small group of specific individuals who visit the same website.
Whaling A phishing attack that targets only wealthy individuals.
Worm A malicious program designed to enter a computer via a network to take advantage of a vulnerability in an application or an operating system.
Zombie An infected computer that is under the remote control of another attacker.
Created by: BWallace9311
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