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Pre-Chemistry 1

8th Grade Earth Science

What is a Proton? a positively charged particle that determines the identity of the atom, or it's element. Found in the nucleus. Affects element
What is a Neutron? a particle with no charge (neutral). Found in nucleus. Affects mass.
What is an Electron? Tiny, negatively charged particles that move rapidly in the electron cloud outside of the nucleus. Affects charge.
Atomic Number The number of protons in a single atom. Also number of electrons in a single atom. Top number
Mass Number The total amount of protons AND neutrons in an element's nucleus. Mass Number - Atomic Number = Amount of Neutrons. Used to identify different isotopes of a particular element.
Atomic Mass This number is a calculated average of an elemental atom's mass. Bottom number
List the examples of Physical Properties, define Physical Properties -Characteristics that can be observed without changing the composition of the substance. Color, Phase/State, Size/Shape/Volume,Viscosity, Freezing/Melting Point, Boiling/Condensation Point, Mass, Density
List the examples of Physical Changes, define Physical Change -A change in the form or appearance of a sample of matter, but does NOT change its composition. Changing from a solid, to a liquid, to a gas, or to a plasma (or the reverse), Change in shape or size, A substance dissolving into another substance.
List the examples of Chemical Properties, define Chemical Properties -A characteristic that can only be determined by changing the chemical identity of a substance. Flammability (catches on fire), Combustibility (explosive), Luminescence (produces light), Oxidation (rusting) Level of Reactivity
List the signs of Chemical Changes, define Chemical Change -A change in the composition of a substance – a chemical reaction. Changes color, Gives off a gas/odor, Heat is produced, Heat is absorbed, A solid is produced
Solids -has definite shape & volume. -atoms are tightly packed together & vibrate in place. -lowest amount of energy
Liquids -has definite volume, but doesn’t have shape. -atoms move more freely – ability to flow.
Gas -doesn’t have definite volume or shape. -atoms have freedom of movement – fill in available spaces.
Plasma -state of electrically charged free-moving particles. -most common phase of matter in stars -have greatest amount of energy.
Definition of Thermal Energy The total kinetic (moving) energy of all the particles in a sample of matter.
Melting Point The temperature where matter changes from a solid into a liquid. Water’s melting point is 0oC or 273 K.
Freezing Point The temperature where matter changes from a liquid into a solid. Water’s freezing point is 0oC or 273 K.
Condensation Point The temperature where matter changes from a gas into a liquid. Water’s melting point is 100oC or 373 K
Boiling (Vaporization)Point The temperature where matter changes from a liquid into a gas. Water’s boiling point is 100oC or 373 K
Sublimation Process that occurs when a solid turns into a gas (skips liquid). This happens with liquid Nitrogen, dry ice, and comets.
Deposition Process that occurs when a gas turns into a solid (skips liquid). This is how frost forms.
Created by: *BROOKE*



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